Ants are so powerful they can sniff and detect cancer cells

a new study has found that ants have the ability to sniff human cancer cells, suggesting that they may be used in cancer diagnosis in the future.
  According to researchers at the French National Centre for Scientific Research, brown forest ants have an exceptionally sensitive sense of smell. In the future, they believe, ants may be better at locating human cancer cells than dogs.
  Scientists tested olfactory cells on 36 ants in the lab. First, experts exposed the ants to the smell of a cancer cell sample, and then correlated that smell with a sugar solution reward; next, the researchers exposed the ants to two different Among the odors, one is the smell of healthy cells and the other is the smell of cancer cells. The results showed that the ant can distinguish cancerous cells from healthy cells. After special training, the ants were able to detect volatile organic compounds released by cancer.
  Extensive testing and validation must be done before the ants can be used in clinical settings such as hospitals as a cancer diagnosis, the researchers said. The latest research shows that ants have high potential to learn quickly with low input cost and high efficiency.

  Due to the different hormone levels in the body, the immune function of men and women will also differ to a certain extent. This difference may manifest in different aspects such as metabolism and disease process. Especially in the field of cancer, there has always been a special phenomenon, that is, in non-reproductive cancers, there are still gender differences in many data.
  A recent study in Science Immunology conducted a sex-discriminatory study of non-reproductive cancer types, mainly analyzing differences in tumor immune responses in males and females. The study found that differences in T cell function were the direct cause of gender differences in tumor progression.
  The study focused on CD8+ T cells, the predominant population of active immune cells that attack cancer cells, mediate adaptive immunity, and generate antitumor responses.
  CD8+ T cells have strong anti-cancer ability, but they are easily exhausted due to continuous exposure to antigenic stimulation in the tumor microenvironment, which is why the immune system loses its sustainability in the process of anti-cancer.
  Although loss of T cell function is the most immediate superficial cause, according to the new study, androgen is likely to be the real influencing molecule, as it is directly involved in the exhaustion process of CD8+ T cells.
  The study analyzed human and mouse cancer samples by sex, and found that CD8+ T cells from the male side showed more features of diminished antitumor function, and these T cells were more prone to exhaustion.
  Androgens affect T cell function mainly by regulating a protein called TCF1. TCF1 is a potent T cell regulatory molecule. Under the constant stimulation of androgens, T cells will gradually differentiate towards exhaustion and produce more Progenitors of exhausted T cells.
  Studies have shown that androgen-mediated CD8+ T cell dysfunction leads to faster tumor growth, thus worsening treatment outcomes. Targeting these signaling pathways and altering subsequent cascades may improve the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy.

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