Birth, old age, sickness and death from the perspective of medical anthropology

   Medical anthropology focuses on the changes of circumstances and the level of experience after modern technology intervenes in daily medical life, adding a different richness and depth to the examination of medical modernity. The same is true of birth, old age, sickness and death, the intervention of technology and consumption factors, intergenerational cognition, and behavioral choices have undergone tremendous changes. Human intelligence expands along with the development of the brain. The brain volume greatly exceeds the opening and closing degree of the female pelvis. The aesthetic customs of high heels and jeans intensify the narrowing of the pelvis. Therefore, childbirth becomes a dangerous and difficult task. behavior, pregnant women become high-risk healthy people. Pregnancy syndrome, as well as puerperal fever caused by poor disinfection by midwives and midwives, kill countless people. Hospital delivery has become a new trend, which has greatly reduced maternal and infant mortality. Fertility transitions (changes in the field) have brought new consumption desires, such as cesarean section, painless childbirth, artificial breastfeeding, and advances in reproductive technology, which have satisfied these “reasonable” demands one by one, and also breeds “test tube”. New desires such as “baby”, surrogate mother, etc. Under today’s technical conditions, it is not only painless to watch (rent) “others” (uterus, breasts) giving birth (breastfeeding) “own” (fertilized eggs) children , chic, and absolutely safe. Therefore, people’s imaginations are boundless: why not buy the best sperm or eggs in the world, combine with their own eggs or sperm, meet in a test tube, and combine into “morula”, unmarried Give birth to the best offspring; or freeze your own sperm and eggs, beyond the short marriage cycle of life, and breed offspring at any time; even bolder is to use gene editing technology to modify your genetic code to make it more trendy. Optimization… In short, technology has no boundaries and consumption is endless. What will the future fertility look like? Mr. Jian Feng’s examination is very profound: human fertility is sliding from “loss of nature” to “anti-natural”, and its basic feature is artificialization , technical.
   Disease and aging are the ultimate truth of life’s cruelty. Undoubtedly, the temptation of health and longevity has always plagued human beings. The desire for longevity is like two sides of a coin: one side is the happy imagination of living a long life, and the other side is the hardships and hardships of living through the years, such as the pain of amnesia in Alzheimer’s disease, the life of the “hanging sword” on the tumor cliff, not only the god of death. Forcing each other, it is also accompanied by a low quality of life. In the face of many degenerative geriatric diseases, medicine and medical treatment are encountering incompetence, powerlessness, ineffectiveness, and helplessness. The purpose of medicine is also changing quietly, from safety-well-being to tranquility-peace-settlement, and turning the advent of death into love Advent (farewell-daoqing-apology-dao love). The point of view of medical anthropology is that medical treatment and doctors must know how to advance and retreat, from “resisting aging” to “delaying aging”, and further retreating to “accommodating aging”. Carbon-based life will die, silicon-based life will die, immortality and immortality are utopias that must be faced with an open-minded; It is necessary to revise the health concept, abandon the demand for absolute health, and accept a relatively healthy situation; rebuild the medical concept, abandon the war model, and move towards a symbiotic model; and adjust the welfare concept, knowing that limited welfare can never satisfy unlimited desires.
   On April 21, 2016, the 49th biweekly meeting of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference decided to call palliative care, palliative care, and hospice care together as “hospice care”, which is tranquility, not safety and well-being. Non-healing, curative. The transfer of medical purpose brings about the change and adjustment of concept. The object of intervention is not just the body, but the whole person/body and mind; the means of intervention are not just medication, injections, and surgery, but stories/narratives, music/drama, life review, and reconstruction of the meaning of life; clinical thinking is no longer stuck With the intervention of biotechnology, it has expanded to life care, individual dignity, and quality of life. This is precisely the “whole person medical treatment” and “natural death” beliefs pursued by medical anthropology.

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