winter, inflammation, and its shell

(1) On the rusted trachea and lung lobes

  The Windy City is deeper, the alveoli.
  This is a city flooded by storms, but if there is no such strong airflow, I am afraid that the City of Wind will cease to exist.
  In normal times, the residents in the alveoli will definitely pick the fruit of oxygen from the strong wind, and wash gently on the dark red lake surface of the diffusion membrane.
  It is a membrane composed of alveolar epithelium, basement membrane and capillary endothelium. There is a difference in air pressure at both ends, so the oxygen fruit will naturally enter the water body of the blood from the diffusion membrane, and the carbon dioxide in the blood will surface. into the alveoli. The blood is dark red and is a vein, with numerous oblate, small red blood cell vessels in the middle, like skin rafts. The hemoglobin box in the raft has strong iron rings that hold oxygen in the box. The raft travels along the pulmonary veins to the heart, and strong undercurrents send them to the arteries. The arteries branch and branch again, sending the rafts into the tributaries of the myriad capillaries, which are then unloaded to different cellular occupants.
  Scientific knowledge
  coronavirus
  coronavirus belonging nidovirales, coronavirus Branch is coronavirus subfamilies, single-strand RNA viruses, because it extends the spike on the viral envelope around, through the electron microscope, the shape Named after the corona and crown.
  Coronaviruses are widely distributed in nature and can infect humans, pigs, horses, cattle, dogs, cats, rabbits, mice, whales, monkeys, goats, bats, and birds, etc., and are highly species-specific. It is tropic to a variety of tissues and organs, mainly the respiratory tract and intestinal tract, and can also involve the liver, kidney, heart, brain and other organs. So far, there are 7 known coronaviruses that infect humans, such as 229E, NL63 of genus a, OC43, HKU1, SARSr-GoV (2002), MERSr-CoV (2012) and 2019-novel coronavirus (2019) of genus B -nCoV, named by WHO in January 2020; SARS-CoV-2, named by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses on February 11, 2020); In addition to the coronavirus that infects humans, there are a variety of coronaviruses that infect other animals, For example, porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), canine coronavirus (CCV), feline infectious peritonitis (FIPV), bovine coronavirus (BCV), mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), etc.

coronavirus structure diagram

  ①Interferon is an antiviral bioactive substance, which can help control viral infection, prevent the virus from spreading in the body and promote the recovery of viral diseases. In addition, it also has the effect of regulating immune function and inhibiting the growth of tumor cells.
  Characterized coronavirus
  coronavirus were polymorphic, viral particle diameter of 60 ~ 220nm, enveloped. The viral nucleic acid is a single-stranded positive-stranded RNA, without segments, and the nucleocapsid is helical symmetry. Structural proteins mainly include capsid protein (N), transmembrane protein or matrix protein (M), spike protein (S), envelope protein (E), and some virus strains also have glycoproteins with coagulation and acetylesterase activities (HE).
  Coronaviruses are mainly transmitted by droplets, and people of all age groups are susceptible. The incubation period of the disease is short, with an average of 3 days. The diseases caused are mainly common cold and pharyngitis, and some can cause diarrhea or gastroenteritis in adults. Coronavirus infection is mostly self-limiting disease ②, the course of disease is generally 6 to 7 days. The SARS coronavirus (SARSr-GoV) that appeared at the end of 2002, the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERSr-CoV) that appeared at the end of 2012, and the new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) that appeared at the end of 2019 are all different from the above. All three coronaviruses are highly pathogenic human coronaviruses that can cause severe acute respiratory syndrome, but they each have different characteristics.
  ② self-limiting disease
  disease after the development to a certain extent, by adjusting the body can control the progression of the disease and recovered gradually restored, do not need special treatment, only symptomatic treatment or no treatment, it can be cured by an autoimmune disease.
  In general, the entire journey from the alveoli of the Windy City to the oxygen-consuming cells is effortless. In addition to the undercurrent pumped by the heart, the natural oxygen descending ladder is responsible for transporting oxygen in the correct direction. , without letting it go backwards. But every step is important, and if one of them goes wrong, the flow of oxygen can be disrupted.
  The first thing to worry about is the Windy City, the source of Oxygen Fruit. What if that perennial wind stops?
  The idea of ​​cells is not unfounded. Right now, the Windy City is going through a major battle.
  Originally, the situation in the Windy City was not very good recently. At first, those outsiders were only invading the corridors and outer cities of the Windy City. The residents of the outer city wanted to release interferon① as an alarm, but the information route was ruthlessly cut off by outsiders.
  So by the time the immune system found them, they had penetrated deep into the city.
  The army of the immune system will not give in. In response to this white-hot war, those cell warriors indiscriminately deployed scorched earth plans, and more and more normal alveolar tissues received signals of self-destruction and put themselves in a fire. Excessive release of inflammatory factors, causing an inflammatory storm. These cytokines release a large amount of nitric oxide and increase the permeability of blood vessels, which affects the function of blood transportation of troops and food and grass. The blood pressure gradually drops, and those ships sink one after another.
  The wind is calming down, and the damaged lungs are beginning to fail. The buildings of this windy city collapsed one by one. The residents died one by one, and there were no longer enough residents to collect those oxygen fruits. Hypoxia in blood, hypoxia in muscles, hypoxia in brain… This in turn led to further collapse of the Windy City.
  Suffocation, suffocation, only the feeling of being covered in mouth and nose and drowning in water. The inhabitants tried to catch only the last breath of air in the lungs, but everything finally calmed down, and the gale, which symbolized vitality, abandoned the city forever. The beating of the heart stopped, and there were no more letters from the brain, and soon, the whole body would decay along with it.
  Also failing are the highly pathogenic invaders that sparked this tragic battle, the new coronavirus.
(2) This is not a drill

  Outside the other Windy City, T cell ⑧ gathering area.
  A killer T cell roams around in the tank. We call him T, but on this ordinary day, T’s heart is full of unease. Through the layers of tissue, the body’s breathing and heartbeat can be heard. But unlike usual, those rhythms that used to sound healthy seem a little strange now. The instructions given by the brain are also different from usual. He looks nervous, and the turbulent flow of signals affects the entire immune system. Under the heavy pressure, they also start to have some occasional disorder. It is conceivable that the one outside the body In the larger universe, between Homo sapiens and Homo sapiens, there must be an unprecedented catastrophe taking place.

 On this day, it rained in the sky. In other words, the sky was torn apart. In normal times, this is definitely not a small accident, because it means that the outside world will release countless foreign objects, which are not part of this complete body, and require great efforts by the immune system to kill or remove them.
  But looking carefully, the heavy rain this time was wrapped in some corpses and stumps.
  The tank soldiers were not terrified, because at a glance they were just virus corpses. When they actually killed the virus-infected cells, the scene was much more horrific than it is now.
  They leaned forward to observe. The viruses were washed to the ground, their skin pale, and they retained their outer spikes. Their stomachs were supposed to be full of nucleic acids and proteins, but they had all condensed into indistinguishable sticky substances, as if the entire body had been hollowed out. It’s all skins like this – who did it all?
  ③T cells
  known as T-lymphocytes, bone marrow-derived pluripotent stem cells, by different functional group of heterogeneous composition lymphocytes, differentiation in the thymus, mature later, lymph and blood through the systemic circulation distributed into organs and tissues of the immune , exert immune function.

  ”It’s a raw face I haven’t seen before.” T said, looking at him from a distance.
  The dump truck of macrophages also drove over. The tentacle-like ventilation pipe stretched out, sucked the stumps in, and began to chew and curse.
  ”Who is so immoral?” “What the hell is this weather, is the tornado moving the battlefield elsewhere?”
  Although there were constant complaints, the work that should be done still had to be done. In theory, as long as these things are digested, there is no problem, but –
  ”This is not a drill, repeat, this is not a drill!” The loud horns of dendritic cells suddenly came from all directions, “You guys don’t move!”
  Everyone startled.
  ”It’s just garbage, right?” T whispered.
  But the dendritic cells are the most intelligent and alert beings here, and they are also the big military group that often issues orders to everyone. Now that the military advisors have spoken, the macrophages want to see what the hell they are up to.
  I saw dendritic cells arrived at the scene, picked up a stump, and sucked it up. While sucking, they also praised: “This durian is so beautiful and juicy.”
  ”What durian… They say it’s rubbish!” I
  don’t know whether to praise their receptors for being too sensitive, or these dendritic cells They are simply short-sighted and treat garbage as durian. In short, they have a big appetite. The powerful endocytosis ability allows them to feast on them. To be honest, looking at the food, T cells look hungry.
  Usually, these immune cells are so jealous of these viruses, even if there is deadly DNA or RNA in them, they will choose to try it. As the so-called disease enters from the mouth, it is said that some “durians” use this to enter the immune cells, invade them from the inside, reproduce themselves, and then split out from the cells to invade the entire body. But luckily this time it was just some so-called “durian” shells.
  But despite the shell… those dendritic cells chewed with relish.
  ”What a fresh antigen,” the dendritic cell said with tears. “Are you all having no appetite?”
  After they ate the scraps happily, they spat out the thorns and held them in their palms preciously: “This is the really important part. As the saying goes, happiness lies in sharing, and now I want to share them with more people. ”
  They turned away and walked towards the B cell ④ area. It was a huge arsenal.
  Dendritic cells come to the “antigen presentation site” and show the B cells those sharp shells.
  ”Wow, such a big durian thorn, I have never seen such a thing.” The B-cell receiving the goods exclaimed.
  ”I think it’s great too, please be sure to identify it.”
  ”Well, it turns out to be the case, it’s not wrong, it’s definitely a powerful spike protein.” If an ordinary respiratory epithelial cell heard this conclusion, it would definitely be frightened. Gotta faint. For them, that sentence carries as much weight as “it’s a nuclear bomb.”
  The B cell observes for a while: “Someone has cooked the durian whole. In other words, his body has been killed.”
  ”This is a signal.” The dendritic cell pondered, “Someone deliberately cooked these signals Show us, next, just activate the whole process and do it according to the normal immune response.”
  ”It should be like this according to the normal process, this is not an exercise. Although it is just the shell, I also feel very stimulated in my heart.” B cells agree. “Bring a few more B cells to try this stuff. After tasting it, we will be divided into classes, either to become plasma cells, specializing in making antibodies, and working overtime to make antibodies; or becoming memory cells, storing durian shells information.”
  ”Great. Macrophages can also do antigen presentation, and they’ll help too.”

  ④B cells
  are a specialized class of antigen-presenting cells, and T cells are lymphocytes. B cells develop in the bone marrow and secrete antibodies that kill pathogens.
  Scientific knowledge
  novel coronavirus appeared
  cause known coronavirus seven kinds of human diseases, 229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1 four kinds prevalent in the population, are the main pathogens that cause the common cold. The common cold caused by coronavirus is second only to rhinovirus, accounting for 10% to 15%; SARSr-CoV appeared in 2002-2003, causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 32 countries and regions around the world, mainly my country. ; MERSr-CoV is the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) that appeared in the Middle East and South Korea from 2012 to 2015; 2019-nCoV was detected by humans in December 2019, and spread among humans, and developed into today’s Novel coronavirus pandemic.

New coronavirus structure diagram

  Human Research on Novel Coronavirus
  On
  January 10, 2020, Zhang Yongzhen’s team from the Institute of Biomedical Sciences of Fudan University released the genome sequence of the new coronavirus.
  On January 21, Hao Pei, a researcher at the Pasteur Institute in Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and others published research progress in the English version of “Science China: Life Science”, saying that the gene sequence of the new coronavirus is similar to SARS virus and MERS virus, but It is quite different from the key spike gene (encoding S protein) that acts on host cells, and the new coronavirus belongs to the genus Betacoronavirus.
  January 24, The Lancet: The earliest reported case in Wuhan had no history of contact with the seafood market.
  On January 26, “Science” magazine quoted Daniel Lucey, an infectious disease expert at Georgetown University in the United States, pointing out that the Wuhan seafood market may not be the origin of the new coronavirus.
  On March 3, the paper “On the Origin and Continuous Evolution of SARS-CoV-2” published by the “National Science Review” sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences showed that the new coronavirus has recently produced 149 mutation points and evolved two. There are two subtypes, the L subtype and the S subtype.
  March 17, “Nature-Medicine”: The new coronavirus cannot be created in a laboratory.
  On April 12, the novel coronavirus inactivated vaccine declared by Sinopharm China Bio-Wuhan Institute of Biological Products was approved by the State Drug Administration for clinical trials, becoming the world’s first novel coronavirus inactivated vaccine to obtain clinical trial approval.
  April 29, Institut Pasteur, France: The outbreak in France was not caused by imported cases from China.
  On May 1, the World Health Organization: the new coronavirus originated in nature.
  On May 3, “International Journal of Antimicrobials”: The new coronavirus has spread in France at the end of December 2019 and has no connection with China.
  On December 31, the State Council’s joint prevention and control mechanism announced that Sinopharm’s China Bio-New Coronavirus Inactivated Vaccine has been approved by the State Food and Drug Administration for listing with conditions.
  T still doesn’t know that those mysterious corpses that were deliberately created were vaccines made by Homo sapiens.
  A new demon is wreaking havoc on the continent, and this Homo sapiens’ immune system knows nothing about the new enemy. How to let the immune system know about the devil without being caught off guard?
  Homo sapiens found their enemies and sealed them into shells. This is all thanks to inactivated vaccines.
  On the one hand, the immune army has the innate instinct to fight threats indiscriminately; on the other hand, it has the side of a scholar, with the characteristics of learning and memory. They turn a blind eye to some strange antigens, but at the same time they hold grudges. As long as these strangers are caught once, they can remember them for a long time.
  But if it is breached the first time, everything is empty talk.
  After a while, T also received such a similar antigen presentation. It’s like a pre-workout from heaven. They and the helper T cells use the lymph nodes as a classroom and carefully remember the appearance of the attacker.
  It’s strange to say that once the antigen has been displayed, those strange things are not durians at all, but as if they have been illuminated by a mirror, and suddenly it becomes clear-it turns out that when this thing was alive, it was a terrible monster. !
  That is the new coronavirus.
  The heart is still beating. The wind in the Windy City is still roaring.
  For plasma cells and helper T cells, this real-life exercise is tiring enough. They have to produce antibodies at any time, produce cytokines. But for killer T cells, is it really useful to preview this?
  T looked at the original novel coronavirus antigen and fell into deep thought.

(3) The real battle

  As the dendritic cells expected, the real threat still came.
  The Windy City has been attacked.
  T saw the complete body of the intruder: the same information provided by the dendritic cells, with those pointed and familiar spines. And for them, the smell of durian shells is everywhere!
  The enemy also passed through the wind tunnel and found the epithelial cell courtyards of the respiratory tract. They used the spike protein to bind to the cell’s specific receptor ACE2 protein, and disappeared like magic on the surface of the courtyard, as if invisible. They quickly dispersed in cells, replicated into countless progeny viruses and escaped.
  Originally, everyone had already entered the battle. The chariots with phagocytosis and killing functions have already rumbled forward, the artillery fire is continuous, and the cold guns of complement are blooming everywhere, but those viruses are so stubborn, as if they have to fight to death.
  T did not move. Their tanks can’t directly attack those little things, their target is actually the compound that has been hijacked by the virus!
  The previous study has allowed them to recognize at a glance which courtyards have been infiltrated by the virus, and the house is full of durian smell. He would blow up the yard with armor-piercing bullets, and then launch a flare into it, urging the family to quickly start the family self-destruction plan.
  So you have to be restrained, restrained. Otherwise, the entire body will fall into a landslide where the fish will die and the net will be broken.
  To avoid this, the key to our tactics lies in the first step. What if you came first to protect the courtyard from those viruses sneaking in?

  Scientific knowledge point
  S protein and ACE2
  The spike glycoprotein of the new coronavirus is referred to as the S protein, which is located in the outermost layer of the virus, like a protruding “crown”. into human cells. In terms of morphology, the S protein of the new coronavirus spans the surface of ACE2 like a bridge, and is like a hand of the virus, holding ACE2 tightly, which is very similar to the SARS virus.

  Scientific knowledge
  coronavirus family
  1.SARS coronavirus
  viral particles or circular shape of a diameter of 120 ~ 160nm, enveloped, flower spikes have the upper crown envelope, spikes approximately 20nm. The nucleic acid is a single-stranded positive-stranded RNA with a total length of about 29.7kb.
  2.MRES coronavirus
  the same as the single-stranded positive RNA, whole genome is about 30.1kb⑤.
  3. The new coronavirus
  2019-nGoV (SARS-CoV-2) particles are polymorphic spherical, with a diameter of 60-140 nm, with an envelope, the spikes on the envelope are about 9-12 nm long, and the nucleic acid is a single-stranded positive-stranded RNA , the full length of the genome is 29844-29891 nucleotides. In the published sequencing results, the sequence identity of the virus genomes isolated from different patients exceeds 99.98%.
  SARSr-CoV, MERSr-CoV, and 2019-nCoV all rely on the receptor binding domain (RBD) in the virus surface S protein to bind to receptors on the surface of host cells, and then release RNA in the cytoplasm to guide the synthesis of new virus particles . Among them, SARS-CoV and 2019-nCoV belong to the B group of the family Coronaviridae and the genus B coronavirus, and the receptors are both ACE2; MERS-CoV belongs to the C group of the genus B coronavirus, and the receptor is CD26 (DPP4).
  ⑤
  The length unit of kb nucleic acid, the abbreviation of kilo-base, 1kb refers to a nucleic acid molecule containing 1000 bases, and if it is double-stranded, it is 1000 base pairs.
  Scientific knowledge
  coronavirus harm
  Of these three coronaviruses, 2019-nCoV has the highest infectivity and MERS-CoV has the highest case fatality rate. SARS is usually characterized by systemic symptoms such as muscle pain, headache, and fever, and respiratory symptoms such as cough, dyspnea, and pneumonia appear within 2 to 14 days; common symptoms in MERS patients are fever, cough, sore throat or chest pain, diarrhea, or Vomiting; patients with new coronary pneumonia are mainly manifested as fever, dry cough, fatigue, a few patients have upper respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nasal congestion, runny nose, diarrhea, and severe patients have difficulty breathing after a week, and severe cases rapidly progress to acute breathing Distress syndrome, septic shock, refractory metabolic acidosis and coagulopathy, and multiple organ failure.
  T continued to watch the battle. Those viruses desperately tried to cling to the courtyard wall and climb up, but they soon discovered that their spike protein was stuck by a strange thing. They can’t shake that thing off, so there’s no way to open the compound with the spike protein.
  coming! T was very excited. That is the secret weapon made by the arsenal of B cells, a special type of antibody-neutralizing antibody, which is transported to the battlefield through the waterway of blood. Now that the immune memory is in effect, the production of these weapons is more continuous, and the viruses in the body fluids are neutralized one by one.
  The emergence of neutralizing antibodies turned the tide of the battle, and the beacon tower of inflammatory factors burned smoothly, and no high ground was captured. Now is the time to leave the T cell accumulation zone and go to the battlefield.
  Now he’s going to take this opportunity to blow up those houses and let all the viruses go to dust…

Post-mortem postmortem: N cooking methods of durian shell

  ”Just watch him reproduce freely here?”
  Durian dishes are being cooked in full swing in the yard, and the cells watching are apprehensive about it. Now it is up to me, Dendritic Cells, as a battlefield food reporter, to introduce the cooking method of the novel coronavirus antigen.
  First of all, here is a Homo sapiens who has not been vaccinated with the new coronavirus inactivated vaccine. It is said that the inactivated vaccine, that is, the durian shell of the new coronavirus, has played a major role. The neutralizing antibodies it induces have brought countless wars to an end and saved countless windy cities. Now the body I’m in has just received another shot of the vaccine. We have no luck to consume these new ingredients, so we can only send them to the cell workshop for cooking, so you can see that I am now anxiously waiting for the cells to be shipped. As for the reason, I will tell you when I am full.
  Alright, now to serve! Following the camera, you can see that a “scrambled COVID-19 spike protein” was handed out in the yard.
  I’ll immediately help you taste what it tastes like… um, it’s delicious! Ideal for antigen presentation.
  Just now this food is completely different from the inactivated vaccine. We like to eat durian because we need durian shells, and inactivated vaccines directly give us the ready-made durian shells, and these mRNA vaccines are actually durian cores. To be precise, it is more like the same mold as the durian core, because it is a piece of mRNA transcribed from the gene encoding the durian shell. Once inside the cells of the vaccinated, the mold quickly produces a pile of durian shells for us to exercise and create an immune memory.
  This is nucleic acid vaccine ⑥. It checked the identity of the new coronavirus, instead of taking the spike protein to follow the map, so the efficiency of immunization is higher. And as long as you keep using this core, you can theoretically get an infinite number of shells. However, it needs to be wrapped in lipid nanoparticles, and the latter requires very harsh low-temperature or even ultra-low temperature transportation conditions, just like your Homo sapiens love to eat fresh food from the deep sea and must be transported by cold chain. And some data show that it is still a bit dangerous to eat durian core directly.

  ⑥ DNA vaccine
  is also called gene vaccine, vaccines comprising DNA and RNA vaccines, the genes that determine the pathogenicity of a specific antigen source directly into human cells, human cells so that production of these antigens themselves, and the antigen stimulate the body’s immune response, so that the vaccinee can obtain corresponding immune protection.
  Scientific knowledge
  of vaccination and prevention
  before the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) appeared, humanity has not developed a vaccine against coronaviruses. After the new coronavirus pandemic, human beings have developed vaccines against the new coronavirus, including inactivated vaccines, mRNA vaccines, adenovirus vaccines, etc., within more than a year, and the vaccines have been vaccinated on a large scale.

  There is another way that our cells can help produce durian shells, and that is to hide the key information, the new coronavirus S protein gene, in a modified adenovirus and let it infect your cells. Scientists cut out the key gene segments responsible for adenovirus replication, so that the adenovirus can still infect people, but cannot complete replication and proliferation, and does not cause disease, which is called a replication-defective adenovirus vector. When a replication-deficient adenovirus vector carrying the S protein gene infects a host cell, it will release the gene encoding the S protein into the cell, synthesize the S protein in the cell, and then trigger a series of immune responses by the S protein.
  Similar to inactivated vaccines, live attenuated vaccines also employ a strategy of direct entry into body fluids. Compared with the inactivated corpse, it is more like a walking corpse, because it first passes the virus on live animals or in vitro cell lines for multiple passages, and then selects those strains that are less virulent to prepare. vaccine.
  I have heard that there are some new vaccine practices in recent years, such as subunit vaccines, which use genetic engineering to allow workers such as yeast to produce pure durian thorns, without other miscellaneous things. I don’t know what you think, but for us, it is more and more like molecular cuisine.
  Note: Regarding the knowledge of the new coronavirus vaccine, we detailed the birth, history, and how it works in the March 2021 issue of “Vaccines – Dawn in the Dark War”, and also introduced the current Research and development and achievements of global new coronavirus vaccine.

  Scientific knowledge
  coronavirus family
  1.SARS coronavirus
  viral particles or circular shape of a diameter of 120 ~ 160nm, enveloped, flower spikes have the upper crown envelope, spikes approximately 20nm. The nucleic acid is a single-stranded positive-stranded RNA with a total length of about 29.7kb.
  2.MRES coronavirus
  the same as the single-stranded positive RNA, whole genome is about 30.1kb⑤.
  3. The new coronavirus
  2019-nGoV (SARS-CoV-2) particles are polymorphic spherical, with a diameter of 60-140 nm, with an envelope, the spikes on the envelope are about 9-12 nm long, and the nucleic acid is a single-stranded positive-stranded RNA , the full length of the genome is 29844-29891 nucleotides. In the published sequencing results, the sequence identity of the virus genomes isolated from different patients exceeds 99.98%.
  SARSr-CoV, MERSr-CoV, and 2019-nCoV all rely on the receptor binding domain (RBD) in the virus surface S protein to bind to receptors on the surface of host cells, and then release RNA in the cytoplasm to guide the synthesis of new virus particles . Among them, SARS-CoV and 2019-nCoV belong to the B group of the family Coronaviridae and the genus B coronavirus, and the receptors are both ACE2; MERS-CoV belongs to the C group of the genus B coronavirus, and the receptor is CD26 (DPP4).
  ⑤
  The length unit of kb nucleic acid, the abbreviation of kilo-base, 1kb refers to a nucleic acid molecule containing 1000 bases, and if it is double-stranded, it is 1000 base pairs.
  Scientific knowledge
  coronavirus harm
  Of these three coronaviruses, 2019-nCoV has the highest infectivity and MERS-CoV has the highest case fatality rate. SARS is usually characterized by systemic symptoms such as muscle pain, headache, and fever, and respiratory symptoms such as cough, dyspnea, and pneumonia appear within 2 to 14 days; common symptoms in MERS patients are fever, cough, sore throat or chest pain, diarrhea, or Vomiting; patients with new coronary pneumonia are mainly manifested as fever, dry cough, fatigue, a few patients have upper respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nasal congestion, runny nose, diarrhea, and severe patients have difficulty breathing after a week, and severe cases rapidly progress to acute breathing Distress syndrome, septic shock, refractory metabolic acidosis and coagulopathy, and multiple organ failure.
  T continued to watch the battle. Those viruses desperately tried to cling to the courtyard wall and climb up, but they soon discovered that their spike protein was stuck by a strange thing. They can’t shake that thing off, so there’s no way to open the compound with the spike protein.
  coming! T was very excited. That is the secret weapon made by the arsenal of B cells, a special type of antibody-neutralizing antibody, which is transported to the battlefield through the waterway of blood. Now that the immune memory is in effect, the production of these weapons is more continuous, and the viruses in the body fluids are neutralized one by one.
  The emergence of neutralizing antibodies turned the tide of the battle, and the beacon tower of inflammatory factors burned smoothly, and no high ground was captured. Now is the time to leave the T cell accumulation zone and go to the battlefield.
  Now he’s going to take this opportunity to blow up those houses and let all the viruses go to dust…

Post-mortem postmortem: N cooking methods of durian shell

  ”Just watch him reproduce freely here?”
  Durian dishes are being cooked in full swing in the yard, and the cells watching are apprehensive about it. Now it is up to me, Dendritic Cells, as a battlefield food reporter, to introduce the cooking method of the novel coronavirus antigen.
  First of all, here is a Homo sapiens who has not been vaccinated with the new coronavirus inactivated vaccine. It is said that the inactivated vaccine, that is, the durian shell of the new coronavirus, has played a major role. The neutralizing antibodies it induces have brought countless wars to an end and saved countless windy cities. Now the body I’m in has just received another shot of the vaccine. We have no luck to consume these new ingredients, so we can only send them to the cell workshop for cooking, so you can see that I am now anxiously waiting for the cells to be shipped. As for the reason, I will tell you when I am full.
  Alright, now to serve! Following the camera, you can see that a “scrambled COVID-19 spike protein” was handed out in the yard.
  I’ll immediately help you taste what it tastes like… um, it’s delicious! Ideal for antigen presentation.
  Just now this food is completely different from the inactivated vaccine. We like to eat durian because we need durian shells, and inactivated vaccines directly give us the ready-made durian shells, and these mRNA vaccines are actually durian cores. To be precise, it is more like the same mold as the durian core, because it is a piece of mRNA transcribed from the gene encoding the durian shell. Once inside the cells of the vaccinated, the mold quickly produces a pile of durian shells for us to exercise and create an immune memory.
  This is nucleic acid vaccine ⑥. It checked the identity of the new coronavirus, instead of taking the spike protein to follow the map, so the efficiency of immunization is higher. And as long as you keep using this core, you can theoretically get an infinite number of shells. However, it needs to be wrapped in lipid nanoparticles, and the latter requires very harsh low-temperature or even ultra-low temperature transportation conditions, just like your Homo sapiens love to eat fresh food from the deep sea and must be transported by cold chain. And some data show that it is still a bit dangerous to eat durian core directly.

  ⑥ DNA vaccine
  is also called gene vaccine, vaccines comprising DNA and RNA vaccines, the genes that determine the pathogenicity of a specific antigen source directly into human cells, human cells so that production of these antigens themselves, and the antigen stimulate the body’s immune response, so that the vaccinee can obtain corresponding immune protection.
  Scientific knowledge
  of vaccination and prevention
  before the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) appeared, humanity has not developed a vaccine against coronaviruses. After the new coronavirus pandemic, human beings have developed vaccines against the new coronavirus, including inactivated vaccines, mRNA vaccines, adenovirus vaccines, etc., within more than a year, and the vaccines have been vaccinated on a large scale.

  There is another way that our cells can help produce durian shells, and that is to hide the key information, the new coronavirus S protein gene, in a modified adenovirus and let it infect your cells. Scientists cut out the key gene segments responsible for adenovirus replication, so that the adenovirus can still infect people, but cannot complete replication and proliferation, and does not cause disease, which is called a replication-defective adenovirus vector. When a replication-deficient adenovirus vector carrying the S protein gene infects a host cell, it will release the gene encoding the S protein into the cell, synthesize the S protein in the cell, and then trigger a series of immune responses by the S protein.
  Similar to inactivated vaccines, live attenuated vaccines also employ a strategy of direct entry into body fluids. Compared with the inactivated corpse, it is more like a walking corpse, because it first passes the virus on live animals or in vitro cell lines for multiple passages, and then selects those strains that are less virulent to prepare. vaccine.
  I have heard that there are some new vaccine practices in recent years, such as subunit vaccines, which use genetic engineering to allow workers such as yeast to produce pure durian thorns, without other miscellaneous things. I don’t know what you think, but for us, it is more and more like molecular cuisine.
  Note: Regarding the knowledge of the new coronavirus vaccine, we detailed the birth, history, and how it works in the March 2021 issue of “Vaccines – Dawn in the Dark War”, and also introduced the current Research and development and achievements of global new coronavirus vaccine.

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