“Making out of nothing” protein

  Under artificial conditions, large-scale biosynthesis of proteins using naturally occurring carbon monoxide and nitrogen sources has long been considered a revolutionary frontier technology that affects the development of human civilization and the cognition of life phenomena. Chinese researchers have achieved the synthesis from carbon monoxide to protein for the first time in the world, setting a record for the highest 85% protein yield in one-step industrialized biosynthesis. Clostridium ethanol is an anaerobic bacteria that can be used to produce ethanol from carbon monoxide. The “waste” in the production process-Clostridium ethanolicum protein is ignored. Researchers found that its crude protein content is as high as 80%, and 18 kinds of amino acids account for 94% of protein, which is a simple protein type; the content of 10 essential amino acids and their structural ratios are close to fish meal, far better than soybean meal. In the production, the carbon monoxide in the exhaust gas of the factory can be used as the carbon source, and the ammonia water as the nitrogen source. After the anaerobic fermentation process, the rapid conversion can be realized in 22 seconds, and the ethanol and the ethanol clostridium protein (mash) can be efficiently produced. Into dry feed powder. The whole process has achieved various goals such as turning waste into treasure, replacing soybeans, and helping carbon neutrality.
Humans receive initial success in pig kidney transplantation

  A hospital in the United States recently transplanted a pig kidney to a brain-dead patient, but did not immediately cause rejection. This shows that the test of transplanting animal organs for humans and finally solving the shortage of donated organs has been initially successful. The doctor connects the pig kidney to a pair of large blood vessels of the patient, and the pig kidney is left outside the patient to observe the effect of the operation. The results showed that pig kidneys normally filter waste and produce urine, and the level of urination is equivalent to that of transplanted human kidneys. The patient’s creatinine level was abnormal before surgery and returned to normal after transplantation. The level of creatinine is one of the indicators to measure whether the kidney function is healthy. A sugar molecule called alpha-gal in pig cells can cause rejection in the human body. This time, the kidney source is a pig that has been genetically modified to remove this sugar molecule, so the patient has no rejection reaction. Research on transplanting animal organs to humans has been going on for a long time. In the 1980s, a critically ill baby in the United States received a baboon heart transplant and died 21 days after the operation.

Limit calories and “starve” cancer cells

  Low-glycemic index diets such as calorie restriction and ketogenic diets can minimize the peak blood sugar and insulin levels. This effect is related to the inhibition of tumor growth in some animal models. Whether other metabolic changes related to this type of diet will affect tumor growth remains to be studied. U.S. researchers studied the effects of calorie restriction and ketogenic diet on pancreatic cancer mice and found that calorie restriction can reduce blood lipid levels in plasma and tumors, as well as reduce the activity of an enzyme that cancer uses to adapt to a low blood lipid environment. Break the balance between unsaturated fat and saturated fat. Although the ketogenic diet will also destroy the activity of this enzyme, the ketogenic diet will increase blood lipid levels, thereby maintaining the ratio of unsaturated fat to saturated fat at a level that is beneficial for tumor growth. In addition to the mouse experiments, the researchers also analyzed the relationship between the dietary patterns and survival time of 1,165 pancreatic cancer patients. A diet high in fat and low in carbohydrates is associated with longer survival time. However, it should be pointed out that a low-glycemic index diet is not suitable for all cancer patients. This diet is sometimes difficult to adhere to and tolerate, and weight loss may also limit the choice of cancer treatment options.