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How to identify and deal with hints from outside information

  Various mind-reading techniques and quizzes in past and present lives that are popular in cyberspace and circles of friends. Some people regard it as a pastime and entertainment after a meal, and they are dubious. Some people regard it as a life creed and a guiding light. There is a fortune teller in a certain place, and the fortune teller in a certain temple is very effective… Some are legends, and some are personal experiences, which makes atheists inexplicable. What is the mystery of “fortune-telling”? In fact, we are just poisoned by a psychological effect, the Barnum effect.
Fuzzy and general “fortune-telling” – the Barnum effect

  ”You are an easy-going person in a group, neither attached to people nor separated from the masses. You will have your own plans for your own near-term and near-term, although your self-discipline is not the highest, making the implementation of these plans a little harder. Small discount, but generally able to follow a good path determined by yourself. You don’t like to dominate others, and you don’t like to be directed by others. You are often attracted by novel events happening in the outside world, but you still maintain yourself. Sometimes Very sensitive, you can feel the troubles of the outside world, which often makes you feel that you will be disturbed like a cat fishing when you implement your plan. You are both conservative and rebellious, trendy, and have a certain daring, sometimes there may be Amazing. Some of your ambitions are often very unrealistic, but stop berating yourself for being playful sometimes, it’s just nature, it’s best to let it flow.”
  Is this a description of you, or even an “exact match” “? In fact, this is what my classmates said to me many years ago. In a psychology class on a personality test, the teacher asked the students to evaluate each other according to the scores of the 16 kinds of personality factors of Cartel. After I reported my test scores, a male classmate buried himself in a piece of paper and wrote a comment about me. After listening to him read this eloquent paragraph, I was very surprised. I felt that all that was said between the lines was me, and at that moment it seemed like someone saw through it.

Magician Seaman Barnum.

  Later, when I read this passage to different people, most people felt that many of the descriptions were very similar to themselves. If you just thought this description resembled you, or partially matched you, then you, like me, have experienced a Barnum effect. The Barnum effect has now become one of the “standard knowledge” for introductory psychology. It is a psychological phenomenon proved by the American psychologist Bertram Fowler through experiments. He believes that everyone will be easy Believing in a general, general description of personality, even if it is very empty, still thinks it reflects your personality, even if you are not such a person at all.
  In 1948, Bertram Fowler administered a personality test to 39 students, and the students were told they would receive a personality assessment report based on their test results. A week later, Fowler gave each student the report and asked them to rate how accurate it was. The content of this personality assessment report is roughly as follows:
  You want to be liked by others, and you are very strict with yourself, even critical; although there are some shortcomings, in general, you can make up for them; you have considerable untapped potential, which is not yet available in daily life. Play; a seemingly tough, self-disciplined exterior hides a soft and worried interior; you like a certain level of change and feel dissatisfied when you are limited; sometimes you are outgoing, agreeable, and sociable, sometimes you are Introverted, cautious and silent…
  How much do you think fits with yourself in these expressions? On a scale of 0 (inaccurate) to 5 (very accurate), the average score given by the test students was 4.26. After the grades were submitted, Fowler told the students that the reports they had received were identical, excerpted from a newsstand astrology book. As can be seen from the description of the report, there are many statements that apply to anyone, and these are later named the Barnum Statements. In another of Fowler’s studies, students used the Minnesota Multiplex Personality Inventory (MMPI), and the researchers rated the reports. The researchers first wrote down the correct assessments of the students’ personalities, but gave the students two assessments—a correct assessment and a fake assessment, which is vague and generalized assessments.
  Students were asked which assessment report they believed was most relevant to them, and 59% chose the fake assessment report. At that time, the academic circles called this self-identification of students the “Fowler effect”. Coincidentally, there was a famous magician named Seaman Barnum at the time, when he explained the reason why his performance was popular, he said: “My show contains ingredients that everyone likes, so my performances are every day. In the 1950s, Fowler’s colleague, the psychologist Paul Mill, named Fowler’s experimental results the “Barnum effect,” and he became famous, even now, The influence of the latter is also much higher than that of the former.
  The so-called Barnum effect is through extensive and vague language descriptions and psychological hints, so that you can’t help but sit in the right seat. In fact, what Barnum Magician said, “My show contains ingredients that everyone likes”, in the application of life scenarios: Suppose there is a hat, in fact, this hat is suitable for everyone, but each Anyone who wears a hat feels that this hat is the most suitable for them. And many so-called fortune-tellers are actually just another “Barnum Magician” who just puts the appropriate “hat” on everyone’s head and puts it on you too.
  Therefore, the vast majority of people who read and calculate hexagrams and eight characters are people who understand some psychology and are good at observing words and expressions. We do tend to trust vague personality predictions tailored to ourselves, regardless of whether the predictions are actually accurate. This cannot be said to be a weakness of human nature, it can only be said to be human nature. The Barnum effect, to put it more informally, is a vague and general “fortune-telling”. So, it is also called the astrological effect.
  The analysis and description of fortune-telling, blood type, constellation, zodiac, tarot cards, etc. in life, and the results that can be used on anyone, make us feel that this is the revelation of our own life. After a calm analysis, we found that the Barnum effect is everywhere and has a large or small, deep or shallow impact on our lives. The power of psychological suggestion is really far beyond people’s expectations.
Correct understanding of the Barnum effect

  In fact, really good people avoid the Barnum effect, but use the Barnum effect. Everything has two sides, and when applied properly, the “trap” can also be turned into a delicious “pie”. The Barnum effect has both positive effects on how to correctly understand ourselves—positive predictions and psychological hints can give us confidence and motivation; it also has negative effects—if we encounter problems, we use predictions to rigidly cover everything. Encounters are pushed to fate, and if you don’t look for problems from yourself, you will fall into the whirlpool of the Barnum effect, and you will be unable to extricate yourself.

  In fact, we can use the “self-fulfilling prophecy” (Self-fulfilling prophecy), to take the essence of the Barnum effect. The so-called self-fulfilling prophecy means that preconceived judgments or language will affect people’s behavior, and ultimately lead to the “true” of the prophecy. If you don’t think you’re a good candidate for reading, then you’ll break the jar and fail the test as expected, and finally say to yourself, “I’m really not suitable for reading!” If you don’t think you can get along with the opposite sex, Then you are very likely to capsize on the ocean of love. In psychology, self-fulfilling prophecy means that we are not passively influenced by the environment, but actively generate corresponding thoughts and reactions according to expectations, so that the expectations can be realized. For example, lucky people are those who think they are lucky. Under the “self-fulfilling prophecy”, they constantly absorb positive information, so that people have a greater chance of success. Some netizens said that they went to fortune-telling not because of how accurate the fortune-teller was, but because they liked this kind of encouragement and encouragement, so that they could achieve what they hoped to be. With the right use of the positive side of the Barnum effect, we can all be lucky.
  At the same time, we should be wary of “confirmation bias” and remove the dross of the Barnum effect. A truly sober person will also know how to avoid the trap of the Barnum effect and instead use other more objective ways to know themselves. Once, when everyone was talking about constellations, I felt that I was an unqualified Scorpio, but a colleague said yin and yang, “No, I think it fits you.” Will play tricks. However, I don’t think these characteristics are suitable for me. In my daily life, I am like a transparent person, all my emotions and thoughts are written on my face, for fear that others will not know.
  In fact, when this colleague chose to support the constellation theory, she had entered the “confirmation bias” thinking error. Confirmation bias is when people tend to look for evidence that supports their views and ignore facts that refute their views. Simply put, people only believe what they want to believe. In some horoscope analysis, people unconsciously “label” themselves. For example, I belong to Scorpio, and I was not “black-bellied” at first, but because I came into contact with horoscope numerology, I thought that I would have a typical Scorpio character, but it has not been discovered yet. Over time, my external behavior and internal character will be based on the constellation. Theoretical description guides and changes, and eventually gradually becomes the so-called typical Scorpio personality.

“Criminal Minds” stills. “Self-fulfilling prophecy” warns us that preconceived judgments or words can influence human behavior. Be wary of “confirmation bias” and be a sober person.

  If I insisted that I did not conform to and did not agree with the constellation theory, I would become an “atypical Scorpio” in the eyes of my colleagues. We must dare to fight against the “attack” that the Barnum effect sometimes wields its claws and blows in the face. It’s not that you have to listen to what you have to listen to, but, for many unwarranted negative hints, you must know how to avoid and stop losses in a timely manner. When we are in these fantasies, reality is long gone, the whole world becomes undercurrent, and we miss many opportunities for real growth and change.
  Reminds me of a classic story. Once upon a time, there was a scholar who went to take the exam, and when he arrived in the capital, he stayed in a shop. I had a dream at night: first, I dreamed that I was growing cabbage on the wall, second, I dreamed that I was wearing a bamboo hat and umbrella, and third, I dreamed that I and my cousin (who had ordered a baby) were sleeping back to back. The next day he was in a very depressed mood, so he went to the street to find a fortune teller to interpret his dream. When Xiucai explained what he had dreamed about, the fortune-teller said: “You dream of growing cabbage on the wall, it is a waste of effort; wearing a bamboo hat and umbrella is unnecessary; sleeping with your cousin back to back is no fun.” After hearing this, Xiucai thought it was reasonable, so he went back to his residence to pack his things and prepare to go home.
  The shop owner asked Xiucai: “The exam is coming, why are you leaving?” Xiucai told the shop owner about his dreams and what the fortune teller said. The store owner smiled and said, “I can also interpret dreams – growing cabbage on the wall means you are tall (middle); wearing a bamboo hat and umbrella, you are prepared; sleeping with your cousin back-to-back means it’s time for you to turn over. .” After hearing this, Xiucai thought it made sense, so he went to take the exam in high spirits, and he won the third flower. If the scholar believed the fortune-teller’s interpretation, wouldn’t he have missed his future? Whether the fortune-telling is accurate or not depends not on the ability of the fortune-teller, but on the person who accepts the fortune-telling; the Barnum effect does not work well, not on how magical the effect is, but on the person who is in it.
  The Barnum effect tells us: to know ourselves, learn to identify and process the cues of external information. Understanding and mastering the Barnum effect can help us better control our destiny. There is a saying that goes well: not judging others casually is a kind of self-cultivation. Not living in the evaluation of others is a kind of practice. The road is long and the road is long, and the journey will come; the journey will not stop, and the future can be expected.

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