Why do old bees “beat the drums” at night

  Sometimes the hives are very quiet and no buzzing sound can be heard, but the worker bees need signals to get busy, so like in a military camp, the elderly bees will use “drums” to order the worker bees to go to work. However, extensive monitoring of beehives shows that the “drumming” sounds are often emitted at night-which is strange enough, because the bees only go out to forage during the day.
  The sound of “drum beating” here is a metaphor, in fact it is a kind of sound made by the vibration of the back and abdomen of bees. Earlier studies have shown that bees usually activate members of the colony through this signal. Bees that hear this signal seem to be instantly rejuvenated and work more vigorously, just like a person has drunk coffee. However, no one can explain why this signal is sent at night.
  Now, a researcher in the United Kingdom analyzes a large amount of data for a year (the data is collected from a tiny device installed in three beehives to record back-abdominal vibration), revealing more about the function of this signal.
  He found that the reason why dorsal-abdominal vibration signals are often emitted at night may be related to activities such as food processing or parenting. These activities are usually performed by worker bees who never leave the hive or experience normal circadian rhythms. Because these worker bees stay in the dim beehive all day long and lack the concept of time, they need the sound of “drums” to tell them when to start working. In other words, the “drum beating” sound is not aimed at the worker bees who go out to forage during the day.
  The back-abdominal vibration signal is one of many vibration signals known to bees. Others are swing dances, which tell other bees where to find food; and clean dances, which are dances when bees want another bee to comb their wings. Scientists even discovered a bee’s vibration sound, which seems to be used to express surprise.

  Since the outbreak of the epidemic, temperature measurement has become our daily routine. The textbook says that a person’s normal body temperature is 37°C. However, I wonder if you have noticed that the body temperature of people around us now rarely reaches or exceeds 37°C.
  Is the temperature measuring gun not accurate enough? No, it is already a fact that human body temperature has dropped. In 2020, the Stanford University School of Medicine released a survey result: Since the 19th century, the average body temperature of adults has continued to drop, and has dropped by 0.4°C in less than 200 years, from 37°C to 36.6°C.
  The drop of 0.4°C seems to be small, but the consequences are not optimistic.
Causes of human body temperature drop

  In 1851, a German physician named Karl Wendrich collected the armpit temperature data of 25,000 patients, and for the first time determined that the normal body temperature of the human body was 37°C. This statement has continued to this day.
  However, in recent years, many investigations have confirmed that human body temperature is declining, and 37°C has become a history.
  There are many reasons for the decrease of modern human body temperature.
  Scientists have analyzed that human body temperature has dropped by 0.4°C in 170 years, and the decline has been particularly large in the past 20 years. The main reason is lack of exercise. In the past, people had to do a lot of exercise every day: rural people wanted to grow crops or graze, even urban people would wash clothes, cook and clean the house by hand every day; people would give priority to walking or cycling when going out, and rely on outdoor exercise in their leisure time. Kill time. However, with the development of science and technology, people are getting lazier: they rely on takeout for meals, take a taxi when they go out, wash clothes with a washing machine, wash dishes with a dishwasher, and play games in bed at any time. Boys play basketball and girls play shuttlecock. Gone are the campus scenes.
  The reduction of modern people’s exercise has led to a general decrease in muscle content; and muscles are the largest heat-generating organs in the human body. Even when a person is doing nothing, muscles are also metabolizing (this is called basal metabolism) and generating heat-we say The normal body temperature is measured in this state. Less muscle means lower basal metabolism and lower body temperature.
  Decreased muscle content is also related to life stress. In a state of stress, the human body is in a state of stress, and the body secretes a hormone called “cortisol” to maintain normal physiological functions. However, cortisol breaks down muscles. Life stress causes long-term excessive secretion of cortisol, excessive muscle breakdown, and lower body temperature.
  In addition to the decrease in muscle content, sweating difficulties caused by air conditioning are also a major cause of the decline in modern human body temperature. People work and live in air-conditioned rooms for a long time, and the thermoregulatory center of the brain’s hypothalamus loses the opportunity to receive stimulation. Over time, the thermoregulatory center is no longer sensitive to the outside temperature, which leads to a decrease in body temperature.
Decreased body temperature

  Studies have shown that for every 1°C decrease in body temperature, immunity will decrease by more than 30%; every 1°C increase in body temperature, immunity will increase by 5-6 times.
  The reason why bats are not invaded by poisons and will not get cancer is because their body temperature can maintain a relatively high 40°C. The human body temperature has dropped by 0.4°C in 170 years, which means that our immunity has declined, greatly increasing the incidence of virus, bacterial infections and cancer.
  Why is the body temperature lowered and the immunity also lowered?
  Our human body has about 60 trillion cells, and the task of blood is to deliver nutrients and oxygen to these 60 trillion cells, and to take away carbon dioxide and other waste products. The white blood cells in the blood can recognize foreign bodies in the body and make a corresponding immune response. When the body temperature is high, the blood flow is fast, and the white blood cells can more quickly find abnormalities in the body, and kill the pathogen in the cradle. On the contrary, the body temperature drops, the blood flow rate slows down, and the efficiency of white blood cells to find foreign bodies and to recruit other white blood cells to eliminate foreign bodies is greatly reduced. This makes the body easy to be infected with viruses and bacteria, causing diseases.
  In addition, white blood cells can not only resist the attacks of external viruses and bacteria, but also monitor the cancer cells in the body and kill the cancerous cells in time. In fact, even a healthy person produces about 5,000 cancer cells in the body every day. If one of them escapes the surveillance of the immune system and survives, it will soon become 1, 2, 2, 4, 4, 8… and eventually evolve into a tumor. Scientists have calculated that if body temperature drops by 1°C and immunity is reduced by 30%, the immune system may miss nearly 1,500 cancer cells every day, allowing them to multiply wildly.
  Therefore, a good immune system can quickly identify and eliminate pathogens externally, and timely monitor and kill cancer cells internally. However, if the body temperature is lowered, the immune system is slow to respond, and it is passive and sabotaged, viruses, bacteria, and cancer cells will all have opportunities.
  Knowing the consequences of lower body temperature, what we can do is to increase body temperature appropriately from the little details by strengthening physical exercise, not using air conditioning, and relaxing the mind to relieve stress.