Everyone is Bound Prometheus

  Tao is one of the earliest art forms in the history of human civilization. As early as before the birth of the text, the pottery made of clay was kneaded and carved by craftsmen, burned in a kiln fire, and then exposed to the wind and sun. Each painting, a play, and a distant legend can be found in Bottles, pots and dishes become eternal, which largely bridges the scars of culture caused by the break of text.
  On the Aegean Sea, the glorious pottery painting art and the timeless tragic aesthetics complement each other, witnessing the ancient Greeks’ memorial to life. Rossetti’s intertextuality of poetry and painting has received the most artistic interpretation on ancient Greek pottery pots. Ancient Greek mythology has always been active in various literary and artistic forms, and mythological themes are especially favored by visual art. Just like oral myths, visual myths also narrate history in their own form. History, mythology and imagery meet and interweave here. Therefore, the meaning of Taohui also needs to rely on history, mythology, literature, drama and other texts that can be referred to in order to get a better interpretation and extend it infinitely. Tao Hui shows extremely high artistic value in expressing the tragedy in mythology.
  The intersection of Taohui and tragedy was initially embodied in the use of image narrative to reproduce legendary monsters, gods or heroes, and well-known classic scenes. Tao Hui’s original painting technique was influenced by geometric style and adopted a two-dimensional composition. Such a picture focuses on display rather than narration, and lacks vividness in plot performance. With the development and maturity of black portrait painting in Attica, ancient Greece, image narrative has developed new. The so-called black portrait painting method refers to keeping the ochre color of the clay in the background, drawing the silhouette of the figure with black paint on the outer wall of the pottery, and then engraving the line with a sharp object such as a knife to emphasize the outline of the figure and the space of different characters. Relationship, showing the characters’ facial features, clothes folds and other details. Compared with the previous silhouette and contour line drawing methods, the artist can make full use of the engraved lines to express the relationship between detail and space, and the expressive power and precision of the line itself have also been enhanced, making the narrative of the image more vivid and credible.
  The pottery painting on the amphora of “Atlas and Prometheus” is inspired by Aeschylus’s tragedy “Prometheus Bound”, and depicts a heartbreaking picture. Prometheus taught humans how to use fire, and the light of fire gave humans vision and enlightenment. Zeus was furious at his act of “stealing fire” for mankind, and tied it to the stiff wall of the Caucasus with the help of the hand of a master craftsman. Prometheus is not only exposed to the torment of wind, frost, rain and snow and the scorching sun, but also the fierce flying eagle every day to eat his liver. By presenting the scenes of the strongest tragic conflict, the painter inspires rich associations and imaginations of the audience, so that a dynamic and complete tragic story emerges in the audience’s mind, leading them into a tragic aesthetic experience. The painter deliberately rendered the ferocity of the evil eagle-huge black wings, terrifying eagle claws and a steel beak that eats bloody liver. At the same time, Prometheus’s twisted body and bloody abdomen show the flesh and spirit. The double suffering.
  In ancient Greek myths and epics, tragedies are not vulgarized tragedies with ethical colors. They are more obsessed with exploring the motifs of “who am I” and “life and death”. Especially for those epic heroes who disturb the situation, the answers to these questions of eternal value are not in the eyes of others, nor in the eyes of God. It is a process of constant self-examination in specific events. The hero drinks, revels, and sings in blood, tears and dust. The destruction of justice, the sacrifice of friends, the phantom of honor-these tragic elements all express the deep division between the real world and the value of life, giving people a strong sense of spiritual pain, and the artistic tension of the work.
  The ancient Greeks believed that tragedies were mostly caused by accidental, mysterious and irrational fate. Prometheus showed great restraint in the facial expressions in the painting, accepting the impending destruction with a nearly calm and indifferent expression, as if fully aware of the established tragic fate, but chose to face and endure the tragic situation and become a tragic hero. .
  This spirit of Prometheus gives more meaning to the tragic aesthetics embodied in the narratives of Taoist paintings. As Mr. Zhu Guangqian said, the beauty of tragedy and the beauty of sublime are highly coupled. The reason why people are humans lies in their initiative and subjective spirit. This subjective spirit is sublimated into a tragic spirit of lofty beauty in the process of fighting against fate. In the face of the grandeur of fate, the emergence of Prometheus’s individual consciousness is actually a naive and profound spontaneous manifestation of the instinct of the ancient Greeks as early humans. That was the first question in the darkness of childhood human beings. Therefore, Marx referred to ancient Greek mythology and art as “the beautiful things in human childhood.” It is true that from the perspective of modern people, Tao Hui is still crude, and is an immature first test in the history of human art, but it is the thought-provoking philosophies contained in this simplicity that make people move, because the awareness of “people” is Constantly awakening.
  Starting from the tragedy blueprint of “The Bound Prometheus”, combined with the author’s detailed performance in the painting, we can find a deeper element of tragedy from it. Although Aeschylus showed the progress of mankind by letting Prometheus show the evolution of skills, he also realized that the development of science and technology may lead to the blind self-expansion of mankind and lead to disaster. The irresistible “destiny” faced by Prometheus’ pride and loneliness actually refers to a transcendent force that is broader than an individual, and even the seemingly powerful gods of Olympus had to bow their heads for it. . In other words, the root cause of the tragedy is not just that a high god is manipulating mankind, but more that mankind who claims to be the master of the world are self-reliant and omnipotent, and fail to recognize their own limitations.
  There are limits to human wisdom. Whether it is portraying personified gods or deified people, they all sink into the finiteness of life. This kind of deep thinking has greatly inspired the promotion of human introspective consciousness. The place where consciousness illuminates is the beginning of civilization, because anyone can be Prometheus tied to the rocks of the Caucasus Mountains. In the period of obscurity, Taohui, as a cultural medium and carrier, condensed the collective memory and social experience of an era, inherited the spiritual context of the Peloponnese Peninsula, as if the winter jasmine blooming quietly at the end of winter, with the uniqueness of the pioneer The dazzling look.

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