The main ethnic group of Kazakhstan is the Kazakh ethnic group, located in central Asia. It is a country declared independent after the disintegration of the Soviet Union. It has a land area of about 272 square kilometers and a population of about 16.95 million. It is composed of more than 130 ethnic groups, most of whom believe in Islam. It is the largest landlocked country in the world with more plains and lowlands.
The prosperous city born on Mangyuan
Nur-Sultan, also called Astana, is the capital of Kazakhstan. Walking on the streets of the capital, you will feel that the buildings here are not inferior to those of major European cities. In addition to European-style buildings, there are row upon row of Islamic-style buildings. To the southeast, there is an iconic building-Bayterek Observation Tower. Like a flourishing white poplar tree, it has become a symbol of Nur Sultan, and is equivalent to the Oriental Pearl of my country in Shanghai. It is said that the inspiration for the construction of this tower came from the myths of the Kazakhs, telling a mysterious bird that lays eggs on a poplar tree every year, and the Haska people will bring happiness if they eat bird eggs. The tower is 105 meters long, symbolizing a tree, and inside it is a big ball about 22 meters in diameter, symbolizing a bird’s egg. There is a large aquarium and an art gallery in the tower, and there is an elevator that can go directly to the top of the tower. The top of the tower is the ball. There is an observation deck on the ball. The capital moved here.
Nur-Sultan is located in the north of the center of the country, and the Ishim River flows around the city. The climate here is pleasant in all seasons and the ecological environment is good. Don’t think that it has become the second coldest city in the world due to the Siberian cold current, but the city’s “Khan’s Tent” still allows you to enjoy the warm spring climate and the tropical climate. “Khan’s Tent” is 150 meters high and is called “the largest tent in the world.” It does not freeze in winter because the building uses a special chemical lining to make the roof air microcirculate; if you want to experience tropical life, go from Maldives The beach paved with imported sand is at a constant temperature of 35 degrees Celsius, allowing you to experience summer life. The “big tent” integrates shopping and entertainment, becoming a new and modern city’s distribution center.
Opposite the Presidential Palace is the Presidential Park. The river in the park is meandering and densely forested. Taking a cruise around the lake, the spaciousness and quietness here makes people feel refreshed. The caves in the park have become unique attractions. Some caves also have small lakes, and the water of the lake rises and falls at the same time as the large lake outside the cave. In this way, there is a hole in the lake, there is a lake in the hole, and the cave and the lake are connected, which is really unique.
As a new city, Nur-Sultan, before the capital was established, no one knew that it was once a barren land used to exile prisoners in the former Soviet Union. It was inhabited by nomadic Russians and was known as the “white grave”. In 2019, to commemorate the first president, Nur Sultan, the capital was named “Nur Sultan”. The original capital was located in Almaty, the largest city in the country. Almaty is equivalent to my country’s Shanghai. It is the financial and cultural center of Kazakhstan. Because Almaty is too close to the border, for strategic considerations, it was decided to move the capital. To Nur Sultan.
Distinctive national characteristics
Kazakhstan is a country mainly engaged in animal husbandry, and they have distinct characteristics in terms of food, clothing and other aspects.
The Kazakhs who have been engaged in animal husbandry for a long time ate most of their diet from livestock, and their staple food is mainly cattle, sheep, horse meat and various dairy products. Horse milk wine is the favorite drink of the Kazakh people. Regardless of men, women and children, all people have a strong interest in horse milk wine. Every summer, Kazakhs always keep horse milk wine in their homes. Horse milk wine can not only relieve the drinking, but also satisfy hunger, is very nutritious, and can cure chronic diseases such as gastrointestinal diseases.
Mare’s milk wine is made from mare’s milk through processing and fermentation. From the end of June to the end of September each year, it is the time for the Kazakhs to make kumiss. Livestock live on the green grassland with plenty of water and grass, fat and milk. The herdsmen put the newly squeezed mare’s milk in wooden barrels or leather barrels, and used a special tool to stir it up and down in the milk barrel, so that the temperature of the mare’s milk in the barrel will continue to rise. After a few days, it will ferment and become A semi-transparent mare kumm with slightly sour taste.
The clothing of Kazakhs clearly reflects the characteristics of pastoral life. Most of their clothes are made of animal fur, which is relatively large and strong, with longer sleeves (usually longer than fingers). In winter, a sturdy winter sheepskin cloak is generally worn, with a metal-patterned belt around the waist, and a knife on the right side (easy to cut meat at any time). The collar of the underwear is relatively high, mostly embroidered with lace, and a suit vest. The trousers are mostly made of sheepskin. Hats vary from region to region and tribe. Women like dresses with colorful embroidered flowers on their chests. When the weather is cold, they wear cotton coats with folds on the front. Young girls love to wear embroidered trousers with silver circles or silver ornaments.
When Kazakhs entertain guests for a meal, the host first sends a plate of meat with sheep’s head to the guests to show respect; after the guests take the sheep’s head from the plate, they cut off a piece of meat on the right cheek of the sheep’s head Put it in your own plate to show acceptance, then cut off another lamb cheek and hold it to the elder on the table, then cut off a lamb ear to the young person in the seat; then, return the lamb plate to the female If the owner does not do this, he is considered rude. After that, the host and guest can happily cut the lamb. When the pans are messy, the host will send a large amount of minced meat to the guests’ mouths for the guests to eat. If a guest expresses rejection, it is understood as underestimating the host’s sincerity. This is almost a compulsion, but it is a very warm, beautiful, and inconvenient way of entertaining, just like a Han Chinese toasting guests.
If a guest comes when the sun is about to set, the host will not let the guest go and stay overnight. The dinner was very hearty, with meat boiled and lamb without meat. When slaughtering sheep, the owner must first bring out a fat sheep, raise it in front of the guests with both hands, and ask the guests to agree. Before the meat is cooked, the host first spreads the table linen, and puts milk bumps, milk tofu, milk skin, sugar, ghee, milk tea, etc. on it. Everyone sits around the table linen and invites guests to sit on the head and eat and drink.
Brilliant colors of the Great Almaty Lake
The Big Almaty Lake, located to the northwest of the Alatau Mountains in Ili, is the most beautiful lake in the city of Almaty. When spring comes, the sun is shining, and the lake is sparkling, adding brilliant colors to the emerald-like lake.
The mist is vast, and the weather is very diverse. Luxury yachts plow out snowy waves, and sometimes big fish jump at the feet of tourists. The “Mustang” speedboat flies through the waves. Small boats of various colors float on the lake like blossoming flowers, and couples swing their oars leisurely. Look forward to the weeping willows swinging lightly with the wind; on the long embankment like a crouching dragon, the lanterns on the classical architecture are overflowing with brilliance; the ingenious rockery and the quaint and elegant Wanghu Pavilion complement each other; the jade pavilion with the angled cornices and the tingling jade Stand. Looking north to the boundless prairie, south to the Ili Alatau mountain ice peak pierced the blue sky. It is also a water bird paradise, where more than 70 kinds of water birds, including whooper swans, cygnets, red-crowned cranes, gray cranes, pelicans, and wild geese, make their homes here. Millions of barnacle geese visit the Greater Almaty Lake every year, and the blackness covers the lake. It is a great pleasure to witness the huge and spectacular lineup of waterfowls and enjoy the fun of people and birds.
From spring to autumn, tens of thousands of people come here to fish every day, either in the shade of the willows, or by the grass beach, and leisurely set up their fishing rods. Even on the lakeside at night, there are still densely packed fishermen, the kind of “fishing alone” The poetry of “Hanjiang Snow” disappeared here, and the colorful “fishing pictures” became a major landscape of the Great Almaty Lake.
The clear blue water of the Great Almaty Lake has nurtured a group of aquatic fishes and added vitality to the great lake. Tropical tilapia with ornamental value also settles here. The white shrimps in the lake are staggering, and they are the top grade on the table of the Great Almaty Lake. There are also amazing mussels on the bottom of the lake. If you have a picnic on the lakeside, you can get the ingredients on the spot. Fish are not only valuable aquatic products, but also add color to the lake. Whenever the purple wild rose blooms all over the mountains, it is the time when crabs and yellow fish are fat. Behind a fat female fish is often followed by seven to eighty male fish, chasing and playing. Sometimes when the wind blows, hundreds of carps line up in the swells, head to tail, and stretch for hundreds of meters. The round mouths spit out countless blisters on the lake surface, gurgling, and it is a spectacle.
Since ancient times, there have been no frogs here, only toads all over the ground. In recent years, frog eggs have been brought into this lake with the fry, and they have multiplied for a few years and become the world of frogs. On summer nights, the “chorus” of frogs spreads across the lake and becomes a spectacle. “Listening to the sound of frogs” is no longer a unique sight in the subtropical zone.
The Great Almaty Lake in autumn is even more beautiful, the lake becomes clearer and clearer, and the color of the lake changes constantly with the light and shadow and the surrounding scenery.
In addition to the lake, tourists can also go for a walk in the forest. Because of the lush vegetation here, the air is exceptionally fresh, and you can enjoy all kinds of wild fun in the mountains when you walk into the forest.
The weird Charyn Grand Canyon
Charyn Grand Canyon is located in the northwest of Almaty. Walking into the scenic area, you will find the red rock formation of the north-south canyon forming a ridge of about 195 kilometers. Although it stretches intermittently for dozens of kilometers, the red rock formations are hundreds of meters above sea level, and the upper part of the mountain has a slightly slower slope, covered with lush bushes and bushes, exposed red rock formations, divided into three layers, stepped, It is called three stacks, and the thickness of each stack is mostly more than 100 meters, and the total thickness is about 300 meters. Its facade has a steep slope, like a knife cut into an upright stone wall, with no grass growing, and its color is bright red; its flat surface is not large, the slope is gentle and sloping, and there are vegetation and emerald green dripping on it.
Due to the erosion of wind, frost, rain and snow over the years, every mountain here has become different in shape, with rugged rocks. The most interesting thing is that there is a cliff, which is not only straight up and down, 100 meters high, but also shaped like an arc. It can be clearly seen from the aerial survey that it is a semi-closed geometric circle. Since the circle is close to five-sevenths of the circle, it forms a very good echo effect.
The imperial dome of the Temple of Heaven in Beijing is a major innovation in architecture in my country using the principle of acoustic refraction. And this echo wall is about three times the echo wall of the Temple of Heaven in Beijing. Standing on one end facing the other, shouting two words at normal speed, not only the echo is clear, but the voice is loud and full of valleys.
There is a huge boulder that looks like a warrior in armor, staring at visitors in the canyon with piercing eyes. It is regarded as the incarnation of Abere Khan, the hero of the ancient unified nation of the Kazakh nation. Because the rocks here are all red, people call it Red Charlen. What’s interesting is that there is a river flowing at the end of the Grand Canyon, and a small oasis is formed on both sides of the river. It is hard to imagine that such a precious river will appear on this deserted Gobi Desert.
The peculiar scenery here is precisely due to the peculiar geology and landforms. The oldest rock exposed in the valley belongs to a kind of metamorphic rock. These rock layers were later uplifted under geological action, rising from underwater to above the land surface, and descending and rising in areas where the two geological processes contacted, the stratum was distorted and fractured. , The present-day Grand Canyon appeared in the north-south direction along the fault line. Due to the strong fracture action, some parallel small fractures appear along its direction, and the blocks produced by the fractures slide down along the fracture surface, forming a first-level stepped cliff, that is, a fault line cliff in geomorphology. The cliff face is steep and the top of the cliff is relatively flat, slightly inclined inward, and the edges and corners of the cliff are complete. This kind of landform is distributed along the fault zone, where the elevation difference is large and the fault block forms the typical fault line cliff often becomes a scenic tourist area.
The geology and landforms of the Charente Canyon remind me of the Colorado Canyon in the western United States, where the plateau is flat and endless. However, looking down, there are deep valleys, steep cliffs, rock walls, and the Colorado River with turbulent waves and flowing water, forming a peculiar natural landscape. The geology and topography of the Charlene Grand Canyon are no less inferior to the Colorado Grand Canyon in terms of scale and weirdness.