The Rise and Fall of Arab Nationalism under the Great Changes Unseen in a Century

The Arab world is located at the junction of the three continents of Europe, Asia and Africa, extending from the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea, the Red Sea, and the Mediterranean to the Atlantic Ocean, becoming a bridge and link connecting the two major economic regions of Europe and the Asia-Pacific. In the late Ottoman Empire, Arab nationalism flourished, and national independence, national unity and national rejuvenation became the goals of Arab elites. In order to weaken the Ottoman Empire, Britain pledged to support the Arabs in establishing an independent Arab state in the fertile Crescent (Sham region). At the same time, it secretly signed the “Sex-Pico Agreement” with France to partition the Middle East. Under the combined effect of many such internal and external factors, Arab nationalism has experienced a century of change from prosperity to decline, which has had a profound impact on the current relations between major powers and the Middle East pattern.

From Arab Nationalism to Local Nationalism
In 1945, the 7 Arab countries that had gained independence, including Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Iraq, announced the establishment of the League of Arab States (hereinafter referred to as the “League of Arab States”), aimed at promoting the unity of Arabs in West Asia, East Africa and North Africa and building a unified unity like the Soviet Union. “Alian”. Arab nationalists drew up a “grand blueprint” for Arab unity. Nuri al-Said, the then prime minister of Iraq, proposed that Arab reunification should be divided into “two steps”, that is, to realize the integration of the Arab sub-region first, and then the overall unification of the Arab world. As the first step, Iraq, Syria, and Jordan in the Sharm area were first merged into one country, then Egypt, Sudan, and Libya in Africa were reunified, then Saudi Arabia and Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula were reunified, and finally the above three sub-regions were formed into a unified country. Arab countries, other Arab countries joined the reunification process after independence, and finally formed a unified “Arab Federation”.

Arab nationalists advocate the use of a common language, culture, history and Islam as a link to strengthen national identity. To enhance national cohesion, the Arab League calls on Arab governments and peoples of all countries to support national liberation, support the just cause of Palestine, and oppose Zionism and British-French colonialism. In the face of common tasks, the Arab nation has become an “imaginary community”, pursuing unity and unity to achieve national rejuvenation and standing among the nations of the world.

Under the common struggle of the Arab world, France was forced to agree to Algeria’s independence in the early 1960s; Britain withdrew from the area east of the Suez Canal in 1971 and ended its mandate in the Gulf Arab countries. Arab nationalism has achieved phased achievements. Not only that, Egyptian Nasser held high the banner of pan-Arabism and declared Egypt and Syria to form the United Arab Republic in 1958; in the same year, Iraq and Jordan announced the formation of the Arab Federation; in 1974, Libya under the rule of Gaddafi announced its merger with Tunisia into the Islamic Arab Republic; The Iraqi Baath Socialist Party and the Syrian Baath Socialist Party put forward three goals of “unification, freedom and socialism”; other Arab countries are also actively studying the way of unification in the Arab world. In May 1981, the Gulf Cooperation Council was established to promote the economic, political, diplomatic and military integration of the Gulf Arab countries and contain Iran; in 1989, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, and the Arab Republic of Yemen established the Arab Cooperation Council; in the same year, The five North African countries Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania established the Arab Maghreb Union. [1] However, Arab nationalists also face a series of challenges in the process of unification.

First, in the Arab world, pan-Arabists represented by Nasser advocate secularization and modernization and oppose hereditary monarchy; while pan-Islamists represented by Saudi Arabia advocate the basic role of Islam in the country and society, and oppose Secularization and republic. The Arab unification cause and the Arab national revolution promoted by Nasser have incurred opposition and criticism from the monarchy headed by Saudi Arabia. In 1962, Saudi Arabia organized an International Islamic Conference to discuss strategies to deal with radical Arab nationalism and secularism. [2] In 1969, Saudi Arabia held high the banner of pan-Islamism and initiated the establishment of the Organization of the Islamic Conference. As a representative of secularism in Egypt and Saudi Arabia as a representative of Islamism, its ideological debate is undoubtedly a fatal blow to the unity and unification of the Arab world. The proxy war launched by the two countries in Yemen has weakened the Arab world’s ability to unite against Israel.

Secondly, in the context of the Cold War, both the United States and the Soviet Union and Britain and France opposed Arab nationalism. They believed that the unification of the Arab world into one country was neither feasible nor dangerous, so measures such as cultivating agents and dividing and conquering were adopted. As early as 1955, the United Kingdom established the “Baghdad Treaty Organization” with northern countries such as Iraq, Pakistan, Iran, and Turkey, which became a barrier for the West to contain the Soviet Union’s expansion into the Middle East; the Soviet Union joined forces with Egypt, Syria, Algeria, and the Democratic People’s Republic of Yemen. “Progressive countries” establish special relations to check and balance the pro-Western Gulf monarchy Arab countries. Starting from its own interests, the United States also believes that the union of two or more Arab countries will do more harm than good to the United States. It believes that a larger and more confident Arab country will have tough policies and difficult to get along with; Arab nationalism will be used by communism. It would be dangerous for the United States if the reunified Arab countries adopt an anti-American stance. [3]

Finally, in the four Arab-Israeli wars, the Arab countries have repeatedly lost, which dealt a severe blow to Arab nationalism. Nasser regarded Israel as “a thorn stuck in the throat of the Arab world” and believed that it blocked the integration of the Arab world in West Asia and Africa. In 1948, 1956, 1967, and 1973, four Middle East wars broke out between Arab and Israel. Arab countries were defeated many times and were unable to “erasing” Israel from the map. Palestine became an independent state indefinitely, and even the long-term Arab world in 1973 The political center-Cairo, the Egyptian capital, was once under threat from the Israel Defense Forces.

After 30 years of resistance, the governments and people of Arab countries have shown frustration and disappointment, and blamed the failure of Nasser Doctrine on the overall problem of “Arab culture.” Since the 1970s, there have been many Arab intellectuals with such defeatist sentiments. [4] Sadat freed Egypt from the shackles of Nasser ideology. He clearly planned the “Egypt first” diplomatic strategy, emphasizing solving his own problems first, not the Palestinian-Israeli problem. In September 1978, under the mediation of the United States, Israel and Egypt signed the Camp David Agreement. Israel returned to the Sinai Peninsula. The normalization of relations between the two countries marked the beginning of the ebb of Arab nationalism. The peace between Egypt and Israel reflects Egypt’s insistence on giving priority to national interests. In principle, Arab nationalism gave way to Egyptian nationalism.

The peace between Egypt and Israel has caused ideological confusion in the Arab world, aroused public outrage in the Arab world, caused the division of Arab countries, and weakened Arab nationalism. [5] In 1979, Egypt was swept out by the Arab League, and the Arab League headquarters also moved from Cairo to Tunisia. As Egypt and Israel set aside Palestine and set a precedent for Arab-Israeli peace, the Arab League has no leader, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, etc. fall to the United States, Iraq, Syria, etc. fall to the Soviet Union, Libya is maverick, and all parties fiercely compete for the right to speak and dominate the Arab world right. After the Islamic Revolution in Iran, the threat posed by Iran strengthened the cohesion of the Gulf Arab countries and delayed the decline of Arab nationalism.

Therefore, from the first Middle East war in 1948 to the end of the Cold War, Arab nationalism has gone through two stages of development. The first 30 years used Egypt’s pan-Arabism as the banner, Israel was regarded as the main threat, and the next 20 years were pan-Islamic During the co-existence of Arabism, pan-Arabism and local nationalism, Israel and Iran were the main threats, and the Arab national unity process was frustrated.

After the end of the Cold War, due to the long-term failure of the Arab world to resolve the problems of internal political systems, economic demands, and increasingly diversified value orientations, coupled with leadership disputes and external forces fueling the flames, Arab nationalism declined. In the early 1990s, with the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, the structure of the Middle East region changed from the US-Soviet bipolarity to the dominance of the US, and the Arab nationalists united with the Soviet Union to counterbalance the US and Israel. In 1993, Israel consolidated its diplomatic achievements and signed the “Oslo Agreement” with Palestine; in 1994, it signed the “Washington Declaration” with Jordan, and Jordan became the second Arab country to establish diplomatic relations with Israel. Since then, the two countries on the front line of resistance—Egypt and Jordan—have made peace with Israel. In 1999, Mauritania announced the establishment of diplomatic relations with Israel, and later announced the severance of diplomatic relations in 2009 because of the Gaza War launched by Israel. By the beginning of the 21st century, the identities, interests and values ​​of Arab countries have become more diversified, and local nationalism has further replaced Arab nationalism. [6]

Arab nationalism goes from dealing with Israeli threats to dealing with multiple challenges
The outbreak of the “Arab Spring” at the end of 2010 became another turning point in the development of Arab nationalism. The internal threats to the security of Arab states have surpassed external threats such as Israel. The Arab world has shifted from responding to Israeli threats to multiple challenges.

The first is the frequency of social protests. From Tunisia, Libya and Egypt in North Africa to Yemen, Bahrain, and Syria in West Asia, the “Arab Spring” swept the entire Arab world. Street politics reflected the strong demands of the lower classes to “see the people’s livelihood” and “anti-corruption”. Regime changes occurred in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Yemen. Street politics broke out in Bahrain. Syria, Libya, and Yemen fell into the quagmire of proxy wars. From 2018 to 2019, the second wave of the “Arab Spring” once again hit the Arab countries, leading to the reorganization of the governments of Algeria, Iraq, Sudan, and Lebanon. The Arab countries were forced to turn their attention from the international to the domestic. Maintaining the security of the regime and responding to the people’s demands for social and economic reforms have become the top tasks of governments of all countries.

The second is the impact of the strategic adjustments of major powers in the Middle East. At the beginning of the 21st century, the United States successively launched the Afghanistan War and the Iraq War, and launched the “Greater Middle East Democracy Project,” but it failed to create a “democratic model” in the Islamic countries of the Middle East through regime change and democratic transformation as it did in Germany and Japan after World War II. Isolationism and war exhaustion in the United States have risen, and it is unwilling to invest too much military and diplomatic resources. It has lost enthusiasm for solving hot issues such as Palestine-Israel, Syria, Yemen, Libya, and Somalia. At the same time, Russia took advantage of the proxy war between Syria and Libya to intervene strongly in Middle East affairs. The new strategic situation of “Russia advances in the United States and retreats” has forced the majority of Arab countries to seek rebalancing on security issues.

Once again is the threat of terrorism. The “Al-Qaida” organization and the “Islamic State” after 2014 have posed new challenges to the security of Arab states. Extremist organizations use high-tech means to spread extremist ideology on the Internet and from the media, promote ethnic, religious, and sectarian hatred, and build a global terrorist network. This not only poses a severe challenge to the Western-dominated Middle East order, but the current Arab regime bears the brunt. , Became its “close enemy”. The Syrian “Victory Front”, the “Al-Qaida” Arabian Peninsula branch, the Somali Al-Shabaab, the Maghreb “Al-Qaida” and the remnants of the “Islamic State” are plotting a comeback and sabotage, forcing many Arab countries to counter terrorism and extremism As an important task of the country.

Finally, there are regional challenges for Iran and Turkey. In the 10 years since the “Arab Spring” broke out, sectarian contradictions have escalated, identity politics have become popular, and national identity and sect identity have diluted national identity. The rise of sectarianism not only affected the war-torn Arab countries, but also had a profound impact in non-war countries such as Iraq and Lebanon. Electoral politics has been marked by sectarian contention and strengthened sect, ethnic and tribal identity. [7] Iran actively formed the “Shi’ite Resistance Alliance”, united with the Iraqi Shi’ite militia, the Syrian Bashar government, the Lebanese Hezbollah and the Yemeni Houthis to implement an “anti-siege” against Israel and Saudi Arabia to ease the surrounding area Pressure on the region. Turkey held high the banner of “maintaining the just cause of Palestine” and formed a “pro-Muslim Brotherhood Alliance” through political Islam with Qatar, Palestine Hamas, the Syrian Turkmen Brigade and the Libyan National Unity Government. In 2016, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain and other countries broke off diplomatic relations with Iran; in 2017, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Bahrain, Egypt and other countries severed diplomatic relations with Qatar, which means that internal challenges such as Iran, Turkey, and the Muslim Brotherhood have become the primary threats to many Arab countries .

In the “new Middle East” where the exchange of enemies and friends, the ebb of governance in the Middle East, the emergence of multipolarity, and the strong return of geopolitics, the Arab world has ushered in a new century of change. Complex threats, diversified interests, and multiple identities have forced Arab countries to seek “rebalancing” in their foreign strategies, including easing conflicts with Israel. The conclusion of a comprehensive agreement on the Yemen conflict and Iran’s nuclear issue in 2015 is a major security issue for the UAE; [8] Representatives of Shia political Islam-representatives of Iran and Sunni political Islam-Muslim Brotherhood in the UAE This constitutes a double challenge. In August 2020, the UAE and Israel signed the “Abraham Agreement” and announced the normalization of relations, indicating that the new generation of Arab leaders and the new government have fundamentally changed their perceptions of Israeli security. This also confirms Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu’s judgment that as the Arab world faces multiple tasks, Arab countries no longer adhere to the “Palestinian-Israeli first, then Arab-Israeli” peace talks order, but take the lead before the Palestinian-Israeli peace. Normalize relations with Israel. [9] The agreement to use “Abraham” as the name is meaningful, implying that both parties recognize Abraham as a common ancestor. The establishment of diplomatic relations between Arab and Israel has led to the normalization of diplomatic relations between Bahrain, Sudan, Morocco and Israel. Arab and Israel have changed from unshakable enemies to tacit “quasi allies”, and more Arab countries may achieve major changes in their relations with Israel. .

If Arab-Israeli reconciliation has achieved a “continuity”, Turkey and Iran have become a “collaboration” with complementary interests in defending the just cause of Palestine, adhering to political Islam, and opposing Israeli bullying. On the Syrian issue, Turkey, Iran and Russia actively participated in the Astana process and the Sochi process; in Libya, Turkey supported the national unity government to check and balance the Libyan National Army supported by Egypt, the UAE, Saudi Arabia, and Israel; in the Eastern Mediterranean, Turkey has become the target of containment by Israel, Egypt and the UAE. In January 2019, Egypt, Israel, Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Jordan and Palestine decided to establish the Eastern Mediterranean Gas Forum. Subsequently, Turkey and the Libyan Government of National Unity signed a memorandum of understanding on “maritime jurisdiction” in the Mediterranean. In September 2020, the energy ministers of six countries including Egypt and Israel held a video conference to sign the charter of the Eastern Mediterranean Natural Gas Forum, announcing the formal establishment of the Eastern Mediterranean Natural Gas Forum, targeting Turkey.

The establishment of diplomatic relations between the UAE and Israel has led to the normalization of diplomatic relations between Bahrain, Sudan, Morocco, and Israel. Arab countries have changed from unshakable enemies to tacit “quasi allies”, and more Arab countries may achieve significant relations with Israel. change. The picture shows on September 15, 2020, at the White House in Washington, U.S., Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu, U.S. President Trump, and UAE Foreign Minister Abdullah (from left to right) attend the agreement signing ceremony.

In the Gulf region, Iran has become a common opponent of Arab and Israel. In 2019, Iranian President Rouhani proposed the “Hormuz Peace Initiative”, calling on external powers to stop interfering in the security and political affairs of the Persian Gulf, and then submitting the “Initiation” to many Arab countries and institutions, but few responded. Saudi Arabia accuses Iran of building a “Shia Crescent”, manipulating Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and Yemen, and subverting the regimes of Arab countries such as Bahrain; Iran accusing Saudi Arabia and other countries of acting as agents of the United States and Israel to piece together a “Middle East strategic alliance” to contain Iran. At the end of November 2020, some media said that Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu, Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed Salman and US Secretary of State Pompeo had secretly met in Saudi Arabia. [10] Soon there was an attack and death of Fahrizad, a senior Iranian nuclear physicist, which intensified Iran’s suspicion that Saudi Arabia, Israel, and the United States colluded to destroy Iran’s nuclear program.

Why the decline of Arab nationalism
Looking at the history of the rise and fall of Arab nationalism over a century, it can be said that Arab nationalism gave birth to the Arab League, which embodies the inherent requirements of Arab nationalism. The Arab League put forward five major goals of national independence, political unification, political democratization, economic and cultural development, and secularization. In 2002, it put forward the “Arab Peace Initiative”. However, the division of the Arab world and the division of Hamas and Fatah have made the U.S. government and Israel feel confident and continue to expand their results. As Egypt, Jordan, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Sudan, and Morocco have made peace with Israel one after another, the “new Middle East” pattern has surfaced. The decline of Arab nationalism has degraded the League of Arab States to only formally unite Arab countries and serve as a forum for redefining pan-Arabism. [11] There are many subjective, objective, internal and external reasons behind the decline of Arab nationalism.

First, the Arab countries have never dealt with the relationship between “one yuan” and “multiple.” The unity and unification of the Arab nation is both ideal and reality. The Arab world has the same language, culture, history, and religion, is geographically connected, and is an important geopolitical, geoeconomic and civilized sector. However, the Arab nation is not a primitive nation that directly developed from a blood combination to a geographical combination, but a new type of nation formed by the integration of several ethnic groups with the existing Arab nation in the Arabian Peninsula as the core. [12] The resource endowments, political systems, and economic development levels of Arab countries are very different, and there is a phenomenon of “one ethnic group with many countries” and “one country with many ethnic groups”. The competition among national identity, subnational identity and supranational identity is fierce. Pan-Arab national identity and pan-Islamic religious identity are intertwined. Political thoughts such as Islamic fundamentalism, pan-Arab nationalism, and local Arab nationalism influence each other. The tension of the three national group identities runs through; religion, integrity, and locality constitute the three characteristics of Arab nationalism. [13] Arab nationalists put forward lofty ideals, but failed to solve the problem of multiple demands in practice, and finally died down.

Second, the Arab world has failed to get rid of ideological disputes on the metaphysical level. The ultimate goal pursued by Arab nationalism is revival and unification, but its internal ideological debate has never stopped. Secular and religious, moderate and radical, decentralization and centralization, tradition and modernity, left and right, monarchy and republic are internal The point of contention. How to seek common ground while reserving differences and avoid ideological disputes has become a prerequisite for the unity of Arab countries in the past, present and future. In the stage of striving for national liberation, the main task of Arab nationalism is to oppose Western colonial rule and establish an independent country. This determined that the specific methods of nationalism at that time were mainly through armed struggle and large-scale mass mobilization to subvert the Western ruling order. At the stage of state building, the main task of nationalism is how to build the country. Therefore, when it comes to the operational level, it replaces “ideological disputes” with “problem solving” and “national consciousness” with “national consciousness” to maintain the status quo. Replace the destruction of political order. [14] After the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1979, the Arab world ushered in an Islamic revival movement. The Muslim Brotherhood took the opportunity to expand the scope of its activities, causing widespread panic in the monarchy and republic Arab countries. Arab countries have switched between different modes such as the monarchy model, political Islam model, and secular authoritarian political model, and so far have not found a path for their own political and economic development.

Third, Arab countries have generally failed to deal with people’s livelihood issues. Beginning in the 1980s, from West Asia to North Africa, many Arab countries began to implement Western liberal economic reforms, but failed to cultivate technocrats who understand their own national conditions in economic and social governance, and most of them copied Western economic development models. The government’s ability to push people to the market and provide social support and welfare has declined, leading to poverty and serious social corruption. [15] Arab countries have high natural population growth rates and low economic growth rates, leading to poverty and unemployment problems that have long plagued governments. Not only that, the oil-producing countries represented by the six GCC countries, Iraq, Libya, Sudan and Algeria, etc. rely on land rent economy, lack a complete industrial system and high-tech industry, underdeveloped higher education, lack of high-tech talents, and mid- to long-term The plan is high and far, and the operability is not strong. In order to compete for regional dominance and maintain regime security, Arab countries have invested their main energy and financial resources on national defense and security, and their economies have stagnated. After the Arab countries of the Middle East got rid of Western colonial rule and established their country independently, the rulers did not realize the transition from “revolutionary” to “builder”. Neither the pan-Arabism that advocates secularism nor the pan-Islamism that advocates a return to tradition has failed to truly achieve economic revitalization. The grand blueprint of national unity and unity mainly reflects the ambitions of Arab elites and upper classes. The government has failed to meet the economic and development needs of the middle and lower classes of society. Therefore, the grand vision of Arab nationalists cannot resonate among the middle and lower classes.

Fourth, the Arab nationalist unification initiative failed to take into account the concerns of small and medium-sized countries. After the end of World War II, the severance of diplomatic relations caused by internal conflicts in the Arab world was not uncommon, including Libya and Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria, Syria and Iraq. Qatar has not restored diplomatic relations with Egypt, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, and Bahrain. The Arab world has been unable to form a norm to properly resolve internal differences for a long time, nor has it fully discussed the way of future national unification. Its power to integrate Arab countries lacks advanced systems and innovative means. Arab nationalists oppose external forces’ aggression against the Arab world, but they promote similar power politics internally; they oppose regionalism in theory, but they pursue regionalism in practice. [16] For example, after the merger of Egypt and Syria, Nasser transplanted a complete set of Egyptian political and economic systems to the latter; after the merger of Libya and Tunisia, Gaddafi transplanted the Libyan system to Tunisia. Similarly, the old President Assad regarded Lebanon as part of “Greater Syria”; Saddam regarded Kuwait as a province of Iraq, and under the banner of “pan-Arabism”, he tied Arab countries to his chariot. , Fought the Iran-Iraq War for 8 years. The small and medium-sized countries worry that the process of national reunification is actually a process of the annexation of small countries by big countries. The Gulf Arab countries are worried that the republican Arab countries will use Arab nationalism as a cover and wait for an opportunity to overthrow the monarchy. Therefore, national unity is regarded as a scourge by small Arab countries, and this threat even exceeds Israel.

Fifth, the complex composition of ethnic groups, sects and tribes within the Arab world is another obstacle to the development of Arab nationalism. Taking the Arab countries of North Africa as an example, the identities of the countries in the Maghreb region are characterized by diversity and ambiguity. There are multiple and heterogeneous cultures such as Berber, ancient Rome, Arabia, France, and Africa, and they lack a unified identity. In addition to the main ethnic group, the Arab world has a relatively high proportion of Kurds, Copts, and Berbers. They have reservations about Arab nationalism; plus Iraq, Lebanon, Somalia, Yemen, Syria and Libya, etc. The central government’s leading ability in Arab countries has declined and the forces of various ethnic groups cannot be fully mobilized. National separatist forces have grown under the influence of external powers. The independence of South Sudan is one example. The fragmentation of the Arab world and the “granulation” of ethnic groups within Arab countries promote each other, which has seriously affected the unity and unification of the Arab world.

Sixth, regional integration in the Arab world is faltering. Compared with the EU, ASEAN and the African Union, Arab countries have never truly achieved regional economic integration. The Arab League has set up the Arab Economic Council and established the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries, the Arab Economic and Social Development Fund, and the Arab Monetary Fund. However, the homogenization of the economic structure of Arab countries hinders the “internal cycle” of the Arab world economy. In June 1957, the Arab Economic Unity Council was established; in 1964, Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Jordan established the Arab Common Market. But by 1973, the mutual trade of the above four countries only accounted for 3.4% and 1.9% of their total imports and exports. [17] In recent years, East Asian countries’ mutual trade dependence has reached 51%, Latin American countries’ 19%, African countries’ 16%, and Arab countries’ only 10%, of which Maghreb countries’ 4.8%. The main trading partners of Arab countries are the European Union, China, the United States, India, and Japan, rather than countries within the region. [18] Without a community of interests, it is difficult to establish an Arab political community and a security community.

The signing of the “Abraham Agreement” was not a prelude to peace in the Middle East, but a sign of the division of the Arab world. From the Camp David Agreement to the Abraham Agreement, the Arab world has gone from nationalism under the leadership of Egypt to today’s local nationalism. Countries have begun to redefine their identities, security, and interests. The Arab-Israeli wave of establishment of diplomatic relations reflects the fact that both sides Strategic rebalancing in the context of the “New Middle East”. [19] From August to December 2020, Israel added four Arab countries with diplomatic relations in just five months, which can be described as a major diplomatic victory in the history of nation-building. In particular, Sudan once fought side by side with Egypt in the third and fourth Middle East wars, and has always been a left-wing country firmly opposed to Israel in the Arab world. [20] The establishment of diplomatic relations with Israel is of far-reaching significance, showing that the situation within the Arab countries, the Arab League and the Middle East is in transition.

With the decline of Arab nationalism, the overall influence of Arab countries has declined. Extraterritorial forces such as the United States, Europe, and Russia, as well as the three non-Arab countries of Iran, Turkey, and Israel, have become “chess players”, Arab countries have become “chess pieces”, Syria, Libya, Yemen, Lebanon, Iraq, Palestine, Somalia and other turbulent countries The vast area in which it is located is reduced to a “chessboard” of great power politics. The Middle East strategic alliance created by the United States (the six GCC countries, Jordan, and Egypt), the “Russia-Iran-Turkey triangle” created by Russia around the Astana process on the Syrian issue, the Shiite resistance alliance led by Iran, and Turkey led The Pro-Muslim Brotherhood Alliance, the “moderate alliance” formed by Israel and the pro-Western Arab countries, etc., tore the Arab world to pieces, and its cohesion and centripetal force are at stake. The return of geopolitics and the network of agents established by major powers in the Arab world have made the Arab world drift away from the “initial aspirations” of national rejuvenation and unification.