Misunderstandings and truth in nails

Misunderstanding 1: There are more and more “crescents” on the nails, the bigger it is, the better the physique

  Truth: The number and size of “Crescent Moon” vary from person to person, and has no inevitable connection with physical fitness.
  What people usually call the “crescent” is the crescent-shaped light-colored area adjacent to the nail and the skin. The scientific name is nail half moon, which is usually most obvious on the thumb (toe). The nail half moon on other fingers or toes is often part of Or it is completely covered by the proximal skin, not nonexistent.
  The number and size of A and a half months are related to the rate of keratin production, just like people are tall, short, fat and thin. There are individual differences. They are not specific signs of disease, nor are they necessarily related to personal physique and nutritional status. However, diseases, nutritional status, changes in the environment and living habits can affect the growth rate of the deck. The first half month of the elderly can gradually become smaller with age, which is a normal physiological phenomenon. Patients with iron-deficiency blood, renal insufficiency, old chronic bronchus, nerve damage, multiple myeloma, AIDS, etc. may appear to become smaller or disappear at half a month. In a few cases, there may be a half-month enlargement of the nail, which may be related to hyperthyroidism and topical application of corticosteroids to the proximal skin of the nail.
Misunderstanding 2: If your nails become black, you must have onychomycosis

  The truth: When the nails turn black, they may suffer from onychomycosis, subungual bleeding, mother nail, melanoma, etc.
  Although the nails are small, they have many problems. The most “notorious” of these problems is onychomycosis. Often patients point to a black line on the nail and ask: “Doctor, do I have onychomycosis?” In fact, this kind of black line and onychomycosis are two completely different diseases.
  Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nails. It is an infectious disease. It usually manifests as yellowing, blackening, thickening and turbidity of the nails. It can be transmitted between different nails and among people living together. It can be examined by local fungal microscopy. Confirmed.
  If the nail suddenly appears non-linear and irregular dark spots, and there is no yellowing or thickening, the possibility of subungual bleeding should be considered, and the diagnosis can be confirmed by dermoscopy.
  If a vertical black line from the root to the edge appears on the nail, it may be a benign lesion such as melanocyte activation, nail nevi, or an early manifestation of acral malignant melanoma. At this time, you should go to the hospital for treatment in time, and a professional dermatologist will make a differential diagnosis, and you must not ignore it or use drugs blindly. Asian melanoma is more likely to occur in the extremities, and the black line is the most important manifestation of melanoma in the early stage and should be paid enough attention.
Misunderstanding 3: Barbs on the nail margin are due to lack of vitamins or trace elements

  Fact: The long barbs on the edges of the nails are actually caused by dry skin. As long as you pay attention to hand moisturizing and care in daily life, it can be improved.
  The small, triangular epidermal barbs on the edges of the nails are often painful. They are called “reverse peeling” in medicine and often occur on the skin around the nail. This has nothing to do with vitamin deficiency and poor spleen and stomach. This type of barb occurs when the skin around the nail is excessively dry and the epidermis and dermis are separated. It often appears in people who work, do housework, nail art, or have nail biting habits.
  When barbs appear, it is convenient for some people to just tear them off. This will aggravate skin damage and may lead to infection. The correct way is to use clean nails to trim the barbs neatly to strengthen hand moisturization. , Try to avoid the incentives that cause local skin dryness.
Misunderstanding 4: Transparent vertical lines appear on the nails because of poor physique

  Truth: There are fine vertical lines on the surface of some nails. As long as the nails are ruddy and there are no other abnormalities, they are normal.
  Our nails are smooth to the touch, and some of our nails appear to have vertical lines parallel to the long axis of the finger under bright light. These vertical lines are a normal physiological phenomenon called nail longitudinal grooves. , Has nothing to do with lack of sleep and weakened immunity. Some people have more obvious vertical lines, while others are less obvious. With age, vertical lines may become more pronounced. In some disease conditions, such as lichen planus, rheumatoid arthritis, etc., these vertical lines will also become more obvious.
Misunderstanding 5: White spots on the nails are signs of vitiligo or roundworms

  Truth: The surface of the deck is normal, but small white spots appear locally. This is medically called punctate white nails. It is usually due to minor trauma that the parent material of the distal nail is destroyed, leading to local changes in the nail plate (such as small injuries caused by manicure operations or external compression). It will gradually move to the distal end or disappear by itself as the nail grows. It has nothing to do with nutritional deficiencies, roundworms in the stomach, or calcium deficiency. It is not a manifestation of vitiligo. If the white spots gradually increase, the possibility of fungal infection should be considered.