Find the secret of longevity from bats

  A tiny fanatical bat, completely ignoring nature’s most basic law of life, life span is 10 times longer than it should have, and it can still live healthy. How did they do it, and can we do it too?
  Rat-eared bat longevity
  international team of Brittany in northwestern France, a team of scientists and volunteers, for seven consecutive years of blood and tissue samples collected rat-eared bat in there. Through these animals, they learned some information about longevity and health.
  The team leader and zoologist Emma Tailing said: “Naturally, there is a rule: small things grow fast and die early; big things grow slowly and live long.” Bats are all suckers. For the smallest animals, their life span should be short. But in fact, many bats live longer than expected. Relative to body size, among the 19 mammals that live longer than humans, 18 are bats (including rat-eared bats) and the other is nude mice.
  Rat-eared bats usually weigh about 25 grams, which is about the same weight as a white rat in a laboratory. The life span of a white mouse is generally no more than 4 years, but this bat can live for 37 years. In 1964, researchers caught a Brent rat-eared bat weighing only 7 grams in Siberia, then marked it and released it. When it was captured again 42 years later, it was found that it was still alive and healthy. What’s even more amazing is that it does not age. You know, according to the natural law of life, 42 years for bats is equivalent to 235 years for humans.
  The World Health Organization predicts that by 2050, the number of people over 60 in the world will double, but the health status of these people will not increase equally. Within 30 years, there may be 300 million people over 80 years old on the planet, and they will not be healthier than the old people before.
  Tai Lin believes that as people’s age increases, their health must keep up. So she believes that we should study those animals that have evolved these mechanisms (long and healthy lifespans), and find ways to match human health with their lifespans. And she thinks the most worthy of study is the long-lived rat-eared bat.
  The secrets of rat ear bat telomeres
  After living beyond the expected age, rat-eared bats have not aged and have no cancer. How do they have superpowers to stay healthy?
  Tailing discovered through research that the rat-eared bat seems to have evolved a series of different life extension methods, the most striking of which is its ability to maintain telomere length.
  Telomeres are cap-like structures at the ends of chromosomes that prevent chromosomes from fusing together and protect them from damage and degradation. In humans and other mammals, telomeres shorten with age. When telomeres can no longer be shorter, the cell stops replicating and destroys itself. Aging cells will send signals to other cells to let them find themselves, and then begin to release aging-related substances, so that all other cells around are aging.
  However, Tailing discovered that the telomeres in rat-eared bats are not shortened, so their chromosomes are protected throughout their lives. In human cells, the only cells with non-shortened telomeres are cancer cells and germ cells. They do this through telomerase, which is not the case with rat ear bats.
  So, why aren’t telomeres shortened in rat-eared bats? Tailing and his team have observed about 400 different genes for six years and believe that two of them, SETX and ATM, may be driving this process. He found that these two genes are also involved in repairing DNA damage, and that these genes in bats seem to evolve differently from other mammals-this may be the fundamental reason why bats have the ability to maintain telomeres without shortening.
  But are these two genes really at work? Tailin is still looking for further proof in the laboratory.
  Bat mitochondria in rat ear secret
  bat lies the secret of eternal youth another their “mitochondria”, the so-called power source for cells. Bats have high energy and demanding flight capabilities, and their metabolic rate is very high-their oxygen consumption increases by 15 times during flight. This kind of workload should arguably shorten the lifespan of bats, but this is not the case.
  Tailing’s team found through research that bats produce high concentrations of free radicals, but their mitochondria did not show the expected damage, which means that bats have the ability to repair or eliminate damage.
  One of the biggest challenges of this research is the deep sequencing of approximately 1.7 trillion bases of RNA from blood samples of 70 bats, revealing the truth about their health and life extension at the molecular level.
  The researchers sequenced the entire blood transcriptome (the collection of all RNA molecules) and compared the results with the human, mouse, and wolf data sets (the only other data set available). They found that the ability of mammalian bodies to repair DNA decreases with age; but for long-lived bats, it increases with age. Similarly, with age, human inflammation will increase; but rat-eared bats do not, they are still good at suppressing inflammation in their later years.
  Tai Lin believes that when bats get older, they increase the expression of certain genes, and these genes can extend their lives. For example, if you put an extra PTEN gene into a mouse, it will live longer; if you reduce the expression of the MYC gene, its lifespan will also become longer. This seems to indicate that we have found the source of eternal youth.
  The real value of greater mouse-eared bat research
  study Tai Lin team answered many questions, it opens up many new avenues for exploration of human life and health.
  Most of the research on aging has focused on mice and nematodes in the laboratory. They have greatly increased our understanding of the aging process, but Tailin believes that they cannot help us further understand the mechanism of aging, so, It’s time to study new creatures. For example, long-lived bats are very suitable for studying how to extend our lives, and more importantly, how to maintain our health.
  In the study of rat-eared bats, Tailin’s team also discovered new genes that had not been identified before, and also discovered a series of new microRNAs. These microRNAs control the anti-aging characteristics of bats by regulating genes. Tailing described microRNAs as similar to a master switch, and suggested that they may have mastered the key to transforming the longevity of bats (including anti-cancer capabilities) into humans. For example, in aging bats, microRNAs that inhibit tumors are up-regulated, while microRNAs that promote tumors are down-regulated.
  The next thing to do is to verify these microRNAs, find out their role, and prove that they can extend life in some way. Then, look at whether there are equivalents in humans, and by finding these equivalents, create a microRNA drug to help humans maintain health and delay aging.
  Tailing’s research has found that the value of biomedicine is unquestionable, but there is still a long way to go to achieve the goal of helping humans delay aging, at least for the moment.