Restore the dinosaur’s exploration journey

  Speaking of dinosaurs, what do you think of? Is it a diplodocus with a long neck and fat toes, a flying pterodactyl, or a cassowary-like cassowary, famous for stealing dinosaur eggs? It seems easy for us to describe what these dinosaurs look like now, because whether it is a museum or a science fiction blockbuster, it shows us a picture of lifelike dinosaurs.
  However, it is really not easy to reassemble a lot of fossil remains tens of millions or even hundreds of millions of years ago. After hundreds of years of hard work, more than a dozen generations of paleontologists have been able to infer the approximate appearance of dinosaurs. But there are still many mysteries left, such as what color the dinosaurs are, whether they have feathers or scales on their skin, and so on. Although many details have not yet been figured out, the appearance of the dinosaurs that paleontologists inferred is still inseparable from the real dinosaurs.
  Prehistoric animal
  as early as prehistoric times, our ancestors in the face of these bizarre fossils and dinosaurs “big footprint”, has already begun with the most reasonable knowledge of these creatures to reshape the original appearance of the bones.
  Naturally, prehistoric humans described these bizarre fossils as various beasts. For example, experts speculate that the dragon in traditional Chinese culture may be the skeleton of a long-necked dinosaur accidentally discovered by Chinese ancients. It may be like a dragon, and then people created this long-bodied beast.
  In Greek mythology, the monster with the head of a lion and an eagle may have been inspired by a beaked dinosaur. This monster has an eagle on the upper body and a male lion on the lower body. Legend has it that it will stay in the sandstone on the mountain or in the desert, guarding the gold under the ground. Experts speculate that this beast may have been conceived by the nomads who were mining gold mines in Central Asia after they discovered the protoceratops. The beak of the Protoceratops looked like a bird’s beak, and the body was like a lizard. The remains of Protoceratops can still be found in the deserts of Central Asia.
  Frightening reptile
  Not only the images of these dinosaur remains in myths around the world vary greatly, but sometimes dinosaurs have strange names. The first time to name a dinosaur remains in black and white was a British physician. In 1763, he discovered a broken end of the femur. This bone fragment looked like a scrotum, so he took it. Glorious name-scrotal dragon. The British physician who believes in God believes that this fossil is a petrified testicle from a certain monster in the “Bible” story. In fact, this is a leg bone of Megalosaurus.
  In 1842, the reputation of the dinosaur family was finally slightly restored by a geology professor at Oxford University. The professor correctly described it as an extinct reptile and named it “the great lizard.” Of course, you can’t blame the careless British physician, because it wasn’t until 1842 that these strange wrecks had their current name—dinosaurs. In English, it refers to “frightening reptiles.” “.
  Those who give dinosaurs the name imagine that Iguanodon, Giant Dragon, and Hylarsaurus crawled on their legs, and their skin was gray or green, like lizards or crocodiles today. In 1854, artists also created life-size sculptures of these animals. If you are lucky enough to see these sculptures in some museums, you will find that they are still very different from the dinosaurs we describe today. For example, as the first discovered dinosaur-Iguanodon, its sharp claws It was once installed on the nose, but was corrected by the discovery of a complete fossil.
  Began to recover from the bone
  now, paleontologists do not usually make such a stupid mistake. Because they already have more knowledge of archaeology and anatomy to make restoration maps. These masters can even guess the color of dinosaur feathers. Now, let us follow these masters and learn how to restore a dinosaur tens of millions of years ago.
  All dinosaur restoration starts with bone fossils. If paleontologists are lucky enough, they will find a well-preserved dinosaur skeleton fossil.
  Faced with thousands or even tens of thousands of fragmented bones, what steps should we take to recover? Then you might as well refer to the order of arrangement of the bones of birds, crocodiles and even humans, because the structural forms of animal bones on the earth roughly follow the same law, so that you can figure out the initial form of this large creature.
  Of course, the probability of finding a complete dinosaur skeleton is as small as the probability of winning the lottery. Most dinosaur fossils were already incomplete when they were discovered. At this time, experts will turn to close relatives of this dinosaur to complete the restoration. For example, because many close relatives of dinosaurs are birds, experts can assemble all the fossils according to the anatomical structure of birds.
  A solid knowledge of anatomy is very useful. Many dinosaur experts are excellent anatomists. They can infer key information about these animals by just looking at the shape of the bones. When you visit the archaeological site with these brilliant-eyed experts, you will find that even the smallest details, like the shape of teeth or the arcs of limb bones, are enough for experts to quickly determine the name of this dinosaur.
  Muscle and feathers can recover
  the bones of dinosaurs of course, only the beginning of recovery, the muscle is also important. On which bone and how much the muscles are added, it depends on the exact position and shape of the existing muscles of the descendants of dinosaurs. Of course, when the muscles of dinosaurs decay, they will leave marks on the rocks, which can reveal the attachment points of some muscles for experts.
  When remodeling the muscles of dinosaurs, experts generally use the current large animals on the earth as references. For example, the buttocks of herbivorous dinosaurs will mimic elephants or rhinos. If you encounter a few fossil bones, you can make a 3D computer model, restore the bones according to the point-to-point method of biology and anatomy, and then find the attachment point of the muscle, and then add the muscle. These models have to be completed with the help of existing animal physiological anatomy.
  Finally, fat and skin layers will be added to our restoration graphics, including scales, feathers, cheeks, mouth, paws and other appearance features. So, which dinosaurs had scales and which ones had feathers?
  According to archaeological findings, generally speaking, the skin of herbivorous dinosaurs will have the mark of scale armor. The most typical are Ankylosaurus dinosaurs, which are covered with bone plates (like the armor worn by ancient soldiers) to protect themselves. Carnivorous theropod dinosaurs, in contrast to herbivorous dinosaurs, are basically covered with feathers. Archaeologists can now be sure that there are nearly 50 species of dinosaurs with feathers. These dinosaurs have many hairs, from soft, heat-insulating down to gorgeous and beautiful feathers.
  How did paleontologists judge the color of dinosaur feathers? This has to talk about melanin. Melanin is present in the hair of birds and mammals. It is a subcellular structure that carries natural pigments. Whether our hair is black, yellow, brown or turmeric, it is all in charge. These melanins are very tenacious and can survive in fossils for tens of millions of years under the right environment.
  In 2014, an international scientific team revealed the skin color of a prehistoric marine reptile called mosasaur through observation of melanin. The results showed that it had a black back and a light belly, and another A marine reptile ichthyosaur is black all over. It won’t be too long, and the dinosaurs restored with this technique may be so colorful that you will be surprised.
  In any case, recovering animals from fossils will still bring some guesses, but this is also an educated guess, the result of the study of generations of biologists. After all, we today can better describe the appearance of dinosaurs than our predecessors.

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