Wonderful uses of DNA

  In recent decades, genetics has brought many revolutionary advances to people’s production and life, and it has also provided tremendous help to agriculture, criminal investigation, justice, medicine and other fields. Due to the huge storage capacity of DNA molecular information and the preservation time for thousands of years, it will bring progress to more fields in the future, such as fine arts, archaeology and computer science. The application fields of DNA will become more and more extensive.
  See through camouflage, the resurrection of ancient
  human hair, pupil, skin color, facial appearance as well as by genes, so just know that a person’s DNA, will be able to know what he looks like.
  First of all, this is very helpful to the police in solving the case. There is a repeat offender in the United States, nicknamed “Creeper”. He often commits crimes with a mask and sneaks into residents’ homes late at night. The police have been searching for him for many years, and because they did not have any facial information about him, they were unable to post a wanted notice.
  However, recently, scientists have extracted the DNA of the “Party Mountain Tiger” from the scene of the crime, and tried to outline his appearance from the DNA and capture it. At present, this technology is still in its initial stage and cannot draw high-resolution face images, but it can help us determine some important characteristics of criminals and avoid human error. For example, when some witnesses recorded their confession after the event, they would add to the description of the suspect due to personal preference; some victims were afraid of being “violated” suddenly and might forget some important details. With the help of new technologies, these drawbacks can be avoided.
  Secondly, this facial analysis technique can also be applied to archaeology. In British history, there was a King Richard III who reigned for a short time and had no portrait left. Later generations portrayed him with black hair and blue-gray eyes. Archaeologists recently discovered his remains under a parking lot in the UK. Scientists collected DNA from it and analyzed it and found that Richard III’s eyes have a 96% probability of being blue and his hair has a 77% probability of being golden.
  Also with this technology, scientists can outline the appearance of Neanderthals more than 20,000 years ago. They are likely to have red hair and fair skin. And through DNA technology, scientists can also resurrect mammoths, dodos and other extinct species. As long as their DNA can be extracted from the remains and sequenced, they can be bred and resurrected by close relatives, such as in elephants. Breed mammoth cubs. In theory, if a modern human is surrogate, scientists believe that a red-haired Neanderthal can be resurrected. As for the resurrection of dinosaurs, it is unlikely, because after the dinosaurs became extinct 65 million years ago, their DNA has long been degraded into fragments in a long history and cannot be restored.
  Food and identify the authenticity of paintings
  poultry, beef and mutton very good resolution, but too many fish species, the market price difference is also large, if shoddy, we are very difficult to tell. what should we do?
  DNA code analysis can reveal the truth. As long as the DNA is extracted from the fish and sequenced, scientists can immediately distinguish the type of fish, and it is easy to operate. With the advancement of science and technology in the future, the detection tool will be simplified into a handheld device-DNA recognizer. At that time, teenagers can also use this device to distinguish the types of fish, to check whether the restaurant is fraudulent or shoddy. When we buy things, we can also use this equipment to check whether we have bought genuine goods, such as the precious and difficult to distinguish bluefin tuna.
  In addition to identifying the authenticity of food, DNA code analysis can also be used to identify the authenticity of artworks. The global art market has billions of dollars in annual transactions, but experts estimate that 40% of it is counterfeit. The professional appraisal agency can certainly distinguish the authenticity, but as the saying goes, “One foot high, one foot high to the evil”, if the counterfeiter is skilled, it is entirely possible that the counterfeit product will be fooled.
  To this end, scientists suggested attaching a small plastic mark to the artwork, which contains a specific DNA code. This DNA code is not the artist’s own, because the forger can obtain the artist’s DNA from his clothes, hair, and even trash, which is convenient for falsification. On the contrary, this specific code can be a piece of DNA from some other substance, so that the DNA is not easy to obtain. When authenticating in the future, you only need to extract DNA from the plastic marker and compare the information in the database. If the two match, it indicates that the artwork is genuine.
  Textile gold against viruses
  present in developed countries, DNA has become a fashion artistic medium. DNA is a long double helix structure composed of four nucleotides. These four nucleotides are arranged in order and can be represented by A, C, G and T respectively. For this reason, some scientists have written computer programs that can “translate” the orderly arrangement of A, C, G, and T into an orderly arrangement of notes, such as duo, lai, mi, fa, etc. This is what we humans can understand Sheet music.
  Some artists use genetic technology to create works of art, such as fluorescent coast paintings, which incorporate a genetically modified bacteria into the dye, which can emit light under certain conditions. Therefore, once these bacteria glow, the whole painting shines like a real fluorescent coast.
  Scientists in the United States and Japan have developed and bred genetically modified mulberry silkworms. The silk spit by this silkworm has multiple characteristics, such as the toughness and extension characteristics of spider silk and the fluorescent characteristics of jellyfish. In an ancient French fairy tale, the girl uses the power of the elves to spin straw into gold like spinning. Perhaps these scientists can also use genetically modified silkworms to spin silk into gold.
  In addition, they also plan to encode knowledge on the Internet, such as every article on Wikipedia, which is popular around the world, in the form of DNA (computer coding has two code forms, 0 and 1, and DNA coding has A, C, G And T four), into a string of special “genes.” Then use genetic modification technology to implant this bunch of “genes” into the real apple genome, so that real apples of wisdom can be created, just like the fruit of the wisdom tree in the Garden of Eden described in the Bible.
  The matching and arrangement of the DNA double helix structure is very precise, for example, A and T are always next to each other. Based on this characteristic, scientists have developed a new technology. They designed a DNA fragment and made it recognize the similar fragments in the double helix structure, and then all the similar fragments combined with each other in a more complicated way. This is just like the origami art we usually play. They combine to form a new DNA “origami” shape.
  At present, using this technology, scientists have obtained some preliminary results, such as making molecular-level images of stars and smiling faces.
  In the medical field, it is the most versatile. Put the DNA origami into a special “box” to carry the drug into the human body, and then the drug can be directly delivered to the target cell. If tumor cells are set as targets, then this “box” will only open and release the drug when it encounters tumor cells. This treatment is very targeted, and there are basically no side effects. At the same time, this “box” can also be used as a “cushion” to imprison virus cells in it, and then use DNA origami to destroy its structure and eliminate it silently.
  Strong storage capacity, high computing power
  far, the DNA is the oldest storage media. Scientists are studying the characteristics of this medium and applying it to information technology. In the existing technology, we use 0 and 1 to encode information to make it a language that the computer can recognize. In the same way, if scientists use A, C, G, and T to encode information, they will form a unique “language”, which is the DNA language (code). Then, as long as they use a DNA recognizer, they can read the data, DNA language becomes information we can understand.
  With this encoding method, the “potential” of DNA to store information can be fully utilized. First of all, its capacity is amazing. The capacity of a CD is about 700 megabytes (MB), and a million CDs is about 700 terabytes (TB, 1TB=1024GB, 1GB=1024MB). If DNA is used as the storage medium, then 1 gram of DNA can store the data of 1 million CDs, and scientists estimate that the actual storage of 1 gram of DNA may be more than this number.
  At present, the information stored on all computer hard disks in the world, if encoded in DNA, can be completely contained in only the palm-sized DNA.
  French Special Arts Group is one of the world’s largest film companies and a leading company in the entertainment industry. It is using DNA to encode and store classic old movies in human history, such as the 1902 old movie “Journey to the Moon.”
  Secondly, it can be copied after storage with DNA. With the help of the properties of enzymes, DNA data can be copied quickly, and there are almost no restrictions on such copying. A scientist at Harvard University in the United States once coded a book of his own with DNA, and then easily copied 70 billion copies in a test tube. This book thus became the most copied book in history, setting a world record.
  Most importantly, DNA has a long time for storing information. The earliest removable storage devices-floppy disks were all the rage, but now they have long been in the trash heap of history, and DNA storage is not like this. At a temperature of about 10°C, DNA can store information for more than 2,000 years.
  In addition to storing information, scientists are also conceiving of using DNA to build biological computers. It is different from our commonly used computers. DNA computers do not have a screen and keyboard, but are actually some chemicals. But this does not delay its computing power. Scientists can input information on it, calculate the results, and demonstrate it, which is the same as an ordinary computer.
  And DNA computers are particularly good at parallel processing, especially at processing millions or even billions of computing tasks at the same time. Weather changes are dynamic processes that are constantly changing, and weather forecasting is a typical parallel process. The computer collects temperature, pressure, and humidity data from many observation points on the earth, and calculates it all the time, in order to predict the changing trend of the weather.
  In addition, in medicine, DNA computers have a big advantage. It can enter the cell and perform various operations such as information recording. If combined with the DNA origami “box” above, it will not only be a DNA computer, but also a “security guard” in the fight against disease.