·The “Afterlife and This Life” of the Mummy The
ancient Egyptians regarded the world as an eternal circular order, with two worlds coexisting: one is the present world and the short-lived world; the other is the next world and the eternal world. The mummy is the soul’s entrance to the eternal world.
”Let’s talk! You have been silent for too long, you have your own tongue, come on, let us listen to your tone; stand on the ground with your feet, mummy, look at the bright eyes of the moon again. You are not skinny Wild ghosts, or puppets with broken arms and legs, are immortals with flesh and bones and sound limbs.” This is a poem praising mummies, written by the 19th-century British poet Campbell.
We can learn about mummies in many ways. We can hear and see topics about mummies everywhere in books, newspapers, movies, TV, and people’s street talks. When people talk about mummies, they all have a common feeling-a sense of mystery. This is firstly because most people have not seen mummies with their own eyes, and on the other hand, because mummies have many magical legends, and mummies also have magical residences-pyramids.
In Arabic, the word “mummy” means “resin” or “pitch”. Going back, this word comes from the word “wax” in Persian. In other words, the term “mummy” was originally used to refer to the bituminous liquid flowing from the Persian Mummy Mountain. In ancient Egypt, this was a widely used pharmaceutical ingredient that everyone wanted. When the demand for this asphalt was in short supply, people began to look for other sources. So when someone saw a black layer on the surface of the mummy mummies, they mistakenly believed that the mummies must have been soaked in “asphalt”, so Egyptian mummies were exported in large numbers, and the fragments were used as medicine everywhere. Later, whenever people mentioned the word “mummy”, they naturally thought of the human remains from Egypt, which were tightly wrapped. In English, the word “mummy”, which specifically refers to ancient Egyptian corpses, came into being. In the late 18th century, the Egyptian government legislated to control the mummification trade, but the export of mummies was still not fundamentally controlled. Merchants continued to export mummies to Europe until the 19th century.
In the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, Europeans had an almost crazy passion for mummies, which can be clearly seen in their literature. Take Shakespeare’s work as an example. In “Romeo and Juliet”, the pharmacist has a mummy in his collection; in “The Merry Wives of Windsor”, Falstaff compares the body of a drowning man to a mummy; in “Macbeth” In, the mummy is part of the nightmare technique. Shelley said in the poem “Bird in the Cage”, “Mummy my body and sell it to the pharmacist”.
The curiosity about mummies in the 18th century gave people a desire to open the layers of the mummies and see their true faces. As a result, wealthy travelers began to bring mummies back to Europe and the United States as souvenirs, and asked people to open the bandages rashly, because they opened the bandages to please the guests, and many mummies were ruined in this way.
However, some scholars also appeared among these people, Thomas Joseph Pittiglu (1791-1865) is the most famous one. He is a surgeon in London, and his professional background makes it easy for him to study mummies. He has studied many mummies, some of which he owns, and some of his friends and colleagues. In his book “The History of Egyptian Mummies and Accounts of Sacred Animal Worship and Preservation”, he left many valuable work records.
In the late 19th century, archaeologists discovered two royal mummification hideouts in Thebes. This discovery enabled scientists to conduct extensive research on mummification techniques and paleopathology. The study found that the royal tombs of the New Kingdom period of ancient Egypt were probably desecrated shortly after the deceased’s burial. Later, during the 21st Dynasty, the priests transferred the mummies of some kings and queens from their original burial places to other places. Place to be buried again. The reason they did this is probably because they hope that this move will give these noble dead a chance to regain eternal life. In the process, some mummies may have been separated from their inscribed coffins and funeral facilities. Due to the carelessness of the priests, some of the mummies after being wrapped again were marked with wrong name tags, which caused a lot of trouble to modern Egyptology research.
The entire ancient Egyptian mummies have a history of more than 3,000 years, and there are more than 70 million mummies, but not many have survived. There are 3 best preserved: Tutankhamun mummies, Seti I mummies and Ramses II mummies. As Egypt became a sovereign country and became stronger, the export of mummies and other cultural relics was strictly prohibited. If Europeans wanted to study mummies, they had to borrow them from Egypt. As a result, there was a historical story about issuing passports to mummies.
There are two important reasons for the emergence of mummies in Egypt: one is that the Egyptian desert is conducive to the dehydration and preservation of the corpse, which gave the ancient Egyptians the idea of artificially dehydrating the corpse to achieve the purpose of preservation; the other is the ancient Egyptians The concept of life and death determines that they want to preserve the remains of themselves and others in this way. There is an ancient Egyptian funeral inscription that reads: “You come alive again, you are always resurrected, you are young again, and again young and eternal.” The
ancient Egyptians regarded the world as an eternal cyclic order, with two worlds coexisting: One is the present world, the short-lived world; the other is the next world, the eternal world. The destination of the ancient Egyptians and ultimately paid great attention to the “life” after death. At the same time, the story of Osiris also provides a theoretical basis for people to make mummies.
God Osiris began to fall in love with his sister Isis when he was in his mother’s belly, and became the king of the world after he was born. His brother Set was very jealous of his brother’s throne, so he planned to murder Osiris and cut his body into pieces and threw it all over the earth. Osiris’ wife Isis recovered her husband’s body, stitched it up, and gave birth to her son Horus. Horus became the god of the world, and all kings have the attribute “son of Horus” in their titles. Osiris thus became the king of the underworld, and the cycle of life and death became the successor of father and son. Therefore, in the concept of the ancient Egyptians, Pharaoh became Osiris after his death. The wrapping and stitching of Osiris’ body is the “theoretical basis” of the mummy maker.
How to make a mummy? Ning Mummies have two production methods, “simple” and “complex”. The former is used by the poor and the latter is favored by the powerful. A simple mummy is to wash the body and wrap it up and everything will be fine, but a complicated mummy takes more than 70 days to make. In the latter production method, the body is first purified, the internal organs are taken out, and they are placed in four small pots. On the jar are the portraits of the “Four Sons of Horus”. They are Imsett (the head god) who takes care of the liver, Hapy (the ape head god) who takes care of the lungs, and Domtef who takes care of the stomach and large intestine. Jackal head god) and the servant Hesennuaifu (eagle head god) who takes care of the intestines. Then, the carcass was dried with sodium carbonate. Finally, wrap the body and prepare for the funeral.
What significance does the mummy have for people to understand ancient Egyptian civilization? It can be said that the mummy provided a unique opportunity to study the diseases, diet, living conditions, family relations and population migration of ancient people.
was buried later in ancient Egypt, when an important person dies, he (she) remains generally will be made into a mummy. The formal process of making mummies is divided into two stages: first, the deceased’s remains are coated with antiseptic treatment, and then the remains are wrapped and buried.
·The “Afterlife and This Life” of the Mummy The