Cook’s three ocean expeditions

  In the long geographical discoveries of mankind, James Cook is the explorer who has contributed the most after Magellan. He has made 3 voyages in the Pacific Ocean and conducted extensive investigations to enable people to understand the truth about New Zealand and Australia. In addition, more than 8,000 kilometers of coastline was added to the world map, which greatly impacted the myth that “the southern hemisphere is a piece of land” was generally believed at that time. In addition, he also discovered the Society Islands and the Hawaiian Islands. Cook’s voyage is accompanied by great discoveries, as well as legends, mysteries, excitement, thrills, suffering and death.
  The first voyage returned smoothly in
  1768. The Royal Society predicted that a rare astronomical phenomenon would occur in the second year-Venus passing through the surface of the sun (Venus transit). King George III of England accepted the proposal of the Royal Society and agreed to form an expedition to the island of Tahiti in the Pacific Ocean. Of course, observing the operation of Venus is just a pretext for this voyage. The real purpose and main goal of this voyage is to discover the southern continent and then incorporate this new continent into the British Empire.
  The captain of this expedition was finally selected as Cook. At this time, Cook had grown into a young and powerful captain, with rich sailing experience, proficient in navigation technology, quite researched on astronomical observation, and was also a hydrogeographer and topographic surveyor. And his cool-headed, observant and diligent in analysis personality also indicates that he will be recorded in history as a great discoverer.
  On August 26, 1768, the Port of Plymouth, England was illuminated by the brilliant sun, the port was glowing with golden waves, and an unremarkable sailing ship was quietly anchored in the harbor, waiting for the great expedition that was coming. The ship carries food that can last for 18 months, 94 crew members, and is equipped with two cannons. The ship slowly sailed out of the mouth of the Thames to the south with the sound of rumbling cannons, and then passed the Cape Verde Islands. On October 25, 1768, Cook crossed the equator line for the first time and headed south via Rio de Janeiro.
  On January 14, 1769, during the mid-summer season in the southern hemisphere, Cook encountered a severe storm at the southeastern tip of Tierra del Fuego. They had to hide in the storm and take refuge in a small nearby bay. Cook and his companions boarded the coast. Here, they met Tierra del Fuego for the first time. At that time, the Tierra del Fuego residents were not influenced by European civilization. Cook and his party made detailed discussions on the appearance, living habits and behavior of the islanders, even Draw graphics and collect a lot of real objects. These records provide an important basis for future ethnographic research and are of great significance.
  The storm finally ceased, and Cook drove out of the refuge harbor, around Cape Horn, and into the Pacific Ocean. On April 13, the ship anchored in Tahiti. On June 3, when Venus transited the sun, scientists, naval officers and soldiers cooperated with each other to successfully complete the observation mission. On July 13, Cook visited 4 small islands near Tahiti under the guidance of an excellent guide and translator. Cook named the islands “Society Islands” and claimed the islands in this area. All belong to the King of England.
  Cook continued to sail westward and unexpectedly entered a large coral reef zone on the east coast of Australia. This is a famous reef area, known as the “Great Barrier Reef”. This is a voyage on thin ice. Although Cook is cautious, he is still in trouble. With a loud noise, the keel of the ship hit the raised reef. Fortunately, the hull was not damaged, but for the next few weeks, the ship could only move slowly. However, even more unfortunately, due to the low tide of the sea, the ship ran aground again, and the crew panicked. Cook calmly commanded the crew to throw the ship’s cannon and ballast into the sea to reduce the weight of the ship.
  The six cannons, ballast iron and stones were all thrown into the sea, but the ship still showed no signs of floating. It had no choice but to wait for the high tide. The tide finally rose, but the boat tilted to starboard again, and the cabin began to flood. Cook quickly ordered the crew to use pumps pumping, then a crew loudly exclaimed: “! God has a tear in the bottom navigation, water has been more and more, bad, have flooded the pumps.”
  Nick of time At that time, Cook decided: “Raise the anchor with all your strength!” The hull finally floated slowly, and the crew cheered in unison. At this time, a crew member ran to Cook and said: “Report to the captain that it may be that the anchor was lifted too hard, and the anchor rope hooked up a piece of coral stone, which just blocked the hole.”
  ”A miracle, it is a miracle. God saved us.” The
  ship finally set sail, passed the Torres Strait, and connected to the route that Torres opened. Another important result of this voyage was that after arriving at the coast of New Zealand at the end of the year, it circled the two local islands for a week, correctly drawing about 3,840 kilometers of coastline on the nautical chart. On this voyage, he completed a long-distance voyage in the shape of an “8”, with a total voyage of more than 4,000 kilometers, and this voyage fully proved that Cook is worthy of being a genius navigator.
  Second degree sea 10 crew members were eaten
  for nearly three years for the first time sailing adventure to Cook brought great honor. But is there a continent somewhere at the southern end of Antarctica? Will the southern continent be located in the waters south of the Netherlands and New Zealand? With these questions in mind, Cook’s sailing expedition set off again, and this time another ship with him was commanded by Ferno.
  The two ships sailed southward by wind and waves. On January 17, 1773, Cook’s ship traversed the Vietnamese Polar Circle on the sea near 39°35′ east longitude. This was the first voyage across the Antarctic Circle in human history.
  During the voyage, the attack of huge wind and waves caused the two ships to disperse several times. On the voyage to New Zealand, he dispersed again, and there has been no rendezvous since, so Cook had to go straight to the Antarctic ice area in a lone ship. In order to inform Ferno of his plan, Cook wrote a letter and put it in a bottle. After arriving at the meeting place, Ferno saw the words engraved on a tree: “Look below, please.” They dug a bottle under the tree, and learned of Cook’s whereabouts.
  When Ferno’s preparations for sailing were about to be completed, he sent a trainee sailor to lead several people ashore to buy fresh vegetables. But they waited left and right, but they did not return to the boat. The next day, Ferno sent his assistants to lead 10 people ashore to find the whereabouts of those who did not return yesterday. The crew searched the island for a long time, and finally found clues on a small canoe on the far shore. These people’s shoes, socks, and clothes were piled on one side, and beside them were piles of chopped arms and Legs, and even breasts and intestines with internal organs exposed. The assistants were shocked by the cruel and shocking scene in front of them, and some crew members shed tears but couldn’t help but vomit.
  It took a long time for everyone to come back to their senses. They stumbled back to the boat and said to Filno: “God! We can’t believe it. We found more than 20 baskets woven with string on the shore, with a lid on the inside. It was filled with roasted meat and bracken roots. This was the meat of the people we went out yesterday. The indigenous people killed 10 of us and ate them as meals.”
  ”We opened the basket and found a few on the bottom. Only a shoe and a hand, with’T·X’ engraved on the back of the hand. This is Thomas Sheila’s hand.”
  ”When we returned, we saw heavy smoke from the nearby aboriginal house. We did not find them yesterday. When I went out, I only found a few oars that were broken and stuck in the ground.”

  Hearing the crew’s babbled statement, Ferno became more and more surprised. At this time, another crew member who came back said: “Our crew’s heads, hearts and limbs are thrown everywhere on the ground. It’s terrible, no There are also a group of dogs in the distance yelling and pawing the bloody corpses on the ground with their paws.”
  Ferno and the other crew members were horrified, just want to leave this terrible place as soon as possible. According to Ferno’s speculation, the tragedy was caused by a quarrel, and when Cook came to the harbor again later, it proved that the speculation was correct. And it was the British themselves who provoked the conflict first. These people publicly beat a Maori in front of a large group of Maori, thinking that he had stolen a few pieces of sugar and some fish from them, so a quarrel broke out. The British crew first shot the Maori during the quarrel, killing two on the spot. A Maori, an angry Maori before the crew had time to load the bullets and shoot again, they all rushed forward and killed them all.
  Cook’s second voyage around the world made many new discoveries, and his arduous voyage in Antarctica led him to the conclusion that he did not believe that anyone would risk their lives to complete more discoveries in Antarctica. . He said arrogantly: “I have surveyed farther south than any previous navigator, and have reached the last limit that humans can reach. Because I can no longer travel south, so I decided to return north.”
  Of course, Cook has a deep understanding of the difficult and dangerous voyages of Antarctica, but this difficulty has never stopped the pace of human exploration. People’s subsequent discovery of Antarctica is a clear proof.
  At this point in the voyage, it would be easy for Cook to head towards Cape Horn and then return to the UK. However, with the warm support of his subordinates, Cook decided to turn to the north to find more islands. However, in the next few days, Cook was unable to Abnormal secretion of bile caused abdominal pain, and he fell into a coma for a time. After rescue and careful care by the doctor on the ship, Cook turned the crisis into peace, and after a period of recuperation, he gradually improved. In July, the ship sailed to the archipelago once discovered by Kiros and Budeville. Here, Cook discovered many new islands, and he named them the New Hebrey Islands. Cook marked all the locations of these islands on the nautical chart, and also carefully described the differences between the indigenous peoples of the islands. He believed that “the Melanesians of Marekela Island are the ugliest of the indigenous people we have ever seen. The natives of Iromanga Island are more attractive in appearance, but they are hostile to the expeditioners.”
  On December 17, Cook discovered the Cape Desa Chi in the western tip of South America and passed the ocean surface of Tierra del Fuego. A small island. They spent a happy Christmas with the indigenous people in the local area. The crew members ate geese, drank local wine, and danced with the indigenous people.
  After Christmas, the ship bypassed Cape Horn and entered the South Atlantic Ocean-at this point, the long-standing myths and legends about the South Continent were completely solved. Cook said in his diary: “I have investigated this area of ​​high latitudes in detail, but found that there is nothing other than ice and dense fog.”
  In August 1773, Cook made his second voyage. Returning to the UK after more than 3 years, this voyage made him famous and was promoted to the first class captain. It is worth mentioning that during this voyage, none of the crew on the ship died of scurvy. In many expeditions in the past, especially sailing and expeditions, scurvy has been a trouble that plagued explorers and sailors. . The reason is that Cook allowed the crew to eat fresh meat and pickled vegetables on the ship, and used drugs that prevent scurvy (wild celery) and lime juice as food therapy. In addition, the more important reason is that Cook attaches great importance to the sanitary condition of the ship. Cook’s experience is of great significance to later explorers and sailors. Cook also won the medal issued by the Royal Society and was selected as a member of the Royal Society.
  Cook died on the third voyage
  Before long, in July 1776, Cook set off again, and Cook considered the third voyage as “the moment of voyage discovery.” He found 9 coral islands in the sea area beyond the equator line and named them the Christmas Islands, and also discovered the Hawaiian Islands, which were not discovered during the first voyage.
  In the Hawaiian Islands, as soon as Cook landed, they were surrounded by about 1,500 canoes. The local natives regarded Cook as a god who can bring harvest and happiness and used rituals to welcome the chief. Come and welcome them. When they walked to the shore, countless people bowed to him, and then crawled behind him. The priests also solemnly led Cook into the temple and introduced him to other idol gods. Cook kissed the idol god in accordance with local etiquette, and agreed that the local natives would smear his body with fragrant oil and wear a hat made of flowers. Cook accepted this service with peace of mind and asked the natives to provide more tributes and supplies to feed his crew. But soon, Cook discovered that the local indigenous attitudes were no longer so friendly and warm. Cook decided to set off, but they were hit by a storm at sea. The front of the ship was blown off and they had to return to the island. At this time the attitude of the chieftain on the island was relatively cold, and the relationship between the crew and the natives gradually deteriorated. .
  One night, the lifeboat on board was stolen. The next morning, Cook came to shore under the escort of 10 Marines and clashed with the local natives. During the conflict, a British soldier slammed a chief with a paddle on the head, and a group of Native Hawaiians immediately surrounded them, some with weapons in their hands. When the two sides were in a deadlock, suddenly there was news that a chief had been killed. The natives were extremely angry, and many began to throw stones at the British. The British had to resist with rifle butts and bayonets, preparing to retreat to the shore. At this moment, Cook made a wrong move-he first shot and killed an indigenous person, and then a British officer killed the second person with a rifle. The British in the boat on the shore also started shooting at the indigenous people. In the chaos, Cook gave a loud order to the crew, and suddenly he was tripped to the ground, and the natives’ guns immediately stabbed over. In the end, only a few crew members fled back to the ship. The local natives killed 30 crew members, and Cook was stabbed to pieces, and the body was chopped into several pieces and distributed to the chiefs on the island for food.
  A few days later, the acting commander retrieved Cook’s head, several hand joints and several bones from the local indigenous people. This great navigator, like his predecessor Magellan, died tragically in a meaningless conflict.

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