Talk about twenty-eight nights

  Reading classical novels, there are often heroes who describe the stars in the sky and descend to the earth, and the most talked about is the 28th. As a result, in folklore, Twenty-Eight Lakes was cast a layer of mystery.
  In fact, twenty-eight nights is not mysterious at all. After long-term observation, the ancients divided the stars near the ecliptic (the sky zone through which the sun and moon passed) into 28 groups, and used this as the coordinates to observe the movement of the stars. This is the twenty-eight constellations. In other words, the twenty-eight constellations are twenty-eight star regions, which are 28 unequal star regions divided into the sky region near the ecliptic from west to east.
   There is a record of twenty-eight nights in ancient China. The most complete record of the twenty-eight nights is the “Lü Shi Chunqiu” of the Qin Dynasty and the “Huainanzi” of the Western Han Dynasty.
   Ershibasu can be divided into four groups of stars, order over is:
   Oriental seven places: angular Kang Di room heart tail Kei
   north seven places: bullfighting female dummy risk wall
   western seven places: Kui Lou stomach Pleiades Bi mouth parameters
   south seven places: well ghost Liu Xing Zhen Zhang Yi
   and seven places each of the parties has been to imagine the ancients into four images of different animals, namely “four images”, which is the Oriental dragon, northern basaltic (Guiyi), Western White tiger, Suzaku the south. This is quite similar to the ancient western imagination of certain constellations as certain animals (such as bear, lion, Taurus, Scorpio, etc.). After the establishment of the “Four Elephants”, people in later generations often used Canglong, Xuanwu, White Tiger, and Zhuque to sign or refer to the four directions of east, north, west and south. For example, the South Street of Chang’an in the Tang Dynasty was named Zhuque Street and the Palace Museum in Beijing The north gate is named Xuanwu Gate.
   As for twenty-eight nights, it was widely used in ancient times. First of all, it can be used to indicate the location of the “Seven Yao” (sun, moon, gold, wood, water, fire, and earth). Since the twenty-eight constellations are stars, and the ancients believed that the positions of the stars are permanent, the twenty-eight constellations are often used to indicate the positions of the sun, moon and five stars. For example, “menstrual pan” means that the moon travels through the Jisu; the so-called “Lingluo Shouxin” means that Mars is in the position of the heart; “Taibai eats the Pleiades” means that Venus obscures the Pleiades; Su Shi’s “Pre-Red Cliff Fu” says “The moon rises above the Dongshan Mountain and wanders between the bullfighting”, that is, the moon wanders between the dorsum and the oxsu. Secondly, some of the stars in the twenty-eight constellations were also used by the ancients to determine the seasons, such as “the first month of the first month is faint in the midst of the fire” and “the first month of the first month is faint in the fire”. The ancients learned from observations that the first month of spring is the first month of the first faint when the ginseng is in the south, and the summer May when the great Mars (that is, the heart) is in the south of the first faint.
   In addition, some of the stars in the twenty-eight constellations are often described in ancient literary works due to their peculiar astrological signs and are given special meanings. For example, the legend of “Gan” and “Heart” recorded in “Zuo Zhuan·The First Year of Zhao AD” is one example. Since Shensu resides in the west and the heart resides in the east, there are two things that are not seen, so the ancients used ginseng and shang (that is, the heart) to compare the disharmony of brothers or the long absence of relatives and friends. For example, in Du Fu’s “Gift to the Eight Scholars of the Guardian”, “Life does not meet, moves like participating in business”, which means that relatives and friends cannot meet. The three-star wine flag in Liusu was often used by ancients as a rhetoric against prohibition because it was shaped like a wine flag. For example, at the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty Cao Cao banned alcohol, Kong Rong said in his letter that “the wine is a virtue for a long time…the sky is the glory of the wine and the stars, the place is the county of Jiuquan, and the people have the virtue of wine.” Li Bai of the Tang Dynasty also chanted in “Drinking Alone under the Moon” (Part 2): “If the sky does not love wine, the wine stars are not in the sky. If the earth does not love wine, the earth should have no Jiuquan. Both heaven and earth love wine, and drinking is worthy of heaven .”
   By the way, the Big Dipper, the West calls it Ursa Major. In China, although Beidou does not belong to the twenty-eight constellations (the Doushu in the northern seven constellations is the guide Dou), it is a group of very striking stars. It is composed of seven stars and resembles an ancient wine scooping battle, hence its name. The four stars that make up the fighting body are Tianshu, Tianxuan, Tianji, and Tianquan in sequence, and the three stars that make up the fighting handle are Yuheng, Kaiyang, and Yaoguang in sequence. The ancients often used Beidou to identify directions and seasons. Connecting Tianxuan and Tianshu in a line, and extending the distance five times longer is where the North Star is located, and the North Star is the symbol of the north. In the first faint, the direction of the bucket handle is different in different seasons, and the season can be distinguished based on this. If the bucket handle refers to the east, the world is spring; the bucket handle guide, the world is summer; the bucket handle refers to the west, the world is autumn; the bucket handles the north, and the world is winter. Du Fu’s “Forty Rhymes of the Twenty-Four Deeds for the King’s Twenty-four Servants”: “One don’t want the night of the star bridge, three move the spring.” The so-called “three shifts of the spring” means that three years have passed.
   In connection with the twenty-eight lions, the ancients also divided the week around the ecliptic into twelve equal parts in the direction from west to east, called the “twelve times”, and their names are: Xingji, Xuanjiang, Laizi, Jianglou , Beam, solid sink, quail head, quail fire, quail tail, longevity, big fire, xiemu. And each “time” is marked by some of the twenty-eight constellations. This is also quite similar to the “Zodiac” divided by ancient foreign countries. The purpose of “twelve times” is to indicate the position of the sun in the four seasons of the year to illustrate the change of solar terms. Explain the location of the Sui Xing (Jupiter) every year, and perform the year of the year based on this, such as “years in the stars” in a certain year, “years in the Xuanjiang” in a certain year, etc.
   The ancient astrologyists also connected the stars in the sky with the regions on the ground, making them correspond to each other, that is, as stated in the “Historical Records of Heaven, there are counties in the sky, and states in the earth.” This is the division. For example, “The History of Han Geography” says “Qi, the difference between emptiness and danger”, “Lu, Kui and Lou”, and “Chu, the difference between Yi and Zhen”. The establishment of divisions was mainly used for divination in ancient times, that is, by observing the celestial phenomena to predict the good, bad, bad, fortune of the area. As a concept related to astronomy and geography, division is often mentioned in ancient literature. As Wang Bo’s “Preface to the Pavilion of the King of Teng” said, “Stars are divided into wings”, which refers to the division of the two stars of Hongzhou and Zhen where the Tengwang Pavilion is located. In Li Bai’s “The Road to Shu”, the “Pain San Li Jing” refers to Shen Su and Jing Su corresponding to Shu (Yizhou) and Qinzhou (Yongzhou); and the poet does not directly say that he entered Shu from Qin Dynasty , And saying that he passed by Jingsu and reached out to reach Samsu again, it was really romantic.