Cirrhosis of the liver is a chronic, progressive and diffuse end stage of liver disease caused by different disease factors acting on the liver for a long time. Patients in different periods have different treatment options. The early stage is mainly to improve liver function and prevent complications; the late stage is mainly symptomatic treatment, and those with serious complications such as portal hypertension require surgical treatment. In addition to liver transplantation, there are many surgical methods for liver cirrhosis, such as portosystemic shunt and flow reduction. After surgical treatment, scientific care must be followed immediately to reduce complications and recurrence.
Specific care measures include-
1. Wound care
After the operation, the doctor will cover the patient’s wound with a dry sterile dressing to avoid infection and inflammation. During the wound healing process, the patient may feel stiffness in the skin near the wound, but there is no need to worry. This is a normal situation. The wound will heal about 3 weeks after surgery. Vitamin E capsules can be used at this time. The oil is applied to the wound to reduce the appearance of scars.
2. Mood care
Some scholars used the Hamilton Anxiety Scale and Hamilton Depression Scale to conduct questionnaire surveys and comparative studies on 40 patients with liver cirrhosis (research group) and 40 healthy volunteers (normal control group). The results showed that the incidence of anxiety in patients with liver cirrhosis was 27.5%, the incidence of depression was 42.5%, and the incidence of anxiety combined with depression was 27.5%; compared with the normal control group, the incidence of anxiety and depression in patients with cirrhosis Significantly increased. Therefore, if the patients can be treated with drugs and surgery while supplementing with psychotherapy, it will be beneficial to consolidate and improve the curative effect and also improve the quality of life of the patients. Patients themselves must also strive to maintain a good attitude and improve their ability to overcome the disease.
3. Daily care
Patients should recuperate for about 3 months after surgery; after 3 months, they can choose to do a small amount of work or rest for half a day according to their actual conditions. Once fatigue, palpitation, and shortness of breath occur during work, they need Stop work immediately; about 6 months after the operation, if the patient has no problems with the re-examination results, he can gradually try to return to his normal workload.
After the operation, patients should keep warm to avoid infectious diseases, such as flu or trauma. If symptoms of jaundice occur, skin care such as anti-itching is needed in time.
4. Diet care
As an important organ for material metabolism, the liver is closely related to the metabolism of sugars, fats, proteins, vitamins and hormones, and has important functions such as secretion, excretion and biotransformation. Therefore, postoperative nutritional therapy for patients with liver cirrhosis is very important. According to reports, the incidence of preoperative malnutrition in liver transplantation patients is as high as 80%-100%, the incidence of moderate and severe malnutrition is 60%-70%, and 80% of patients with liver cirrhosis have malnutrition. In this regard, patients have to change their minds. After the operation, eating is also a way of treatment. It is not that they have poor appetite and are unwilling to eat. When you should eat, even if you have no appetite, you still need to eat hard. Only when your body gets enough nutritional support can you strengthen your immunity, protect yourself from infectious diseases, and help your condition improve.
When you lose your appetite, you can take a small amount of meals to ensure the intake of energy and nutrients. Under normal circumstances, within 6 months after the operation, you can eat 6 meals a day. After the appetite is restored and the amount of food consumed increases, the frequency of eating can be gradually reduced.
Postoperative patients’ diet should be based on high-protein, rich vitamin foods; the diet should be light, and the dishes should be processed by steaming, boiling, stewing, and simmering to make the food easy to absorb; staple foods can be bread, steamed bread, flower rolls, Steamed buns and other fermented pasta.
5. Regular review
In the early postoperative period, patients need to take hepatoprotective drugs. Do not increase or decrease the dose privately during the medication, and they must go to the hospital for regular checkups. Under normal circumstances, patients need to be reviewed every 2 weeks for the first 6 months after discharge; after 6 months, according to the actual situation, it can be changed to 1 check every 2 months; after 1 year, if If there is no major abnormality, it can be reviewed once every 3 months. Remember to bring your original medical records and related laboratory test sheets with you during each check-up, so that the doctor can compare and observe.