Reconnaissance has always been the action of the brave, with high risk factors and difficult conditions. However, with the rapid development of high and new technology, various types of unmanned equipment have emerged one after another. High-altitude reconnaissance satellites, unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, all-terrain unmanned reconnaissance vehicles, and Various unmanned reconnaissance platforms such as manned ships and unmanned submarines provide the material basis for unmanned reconnaissance operations, and make reconnaissance operations present a new trend of rapid development toward “unmanned”, which will surely provide reconnaissance intelligence Work brings new changes.
The combat function is gradually enhanced, and intelligence and combat are integrated
In recent years, the number of unmanned equipment has shown explosive growth, the equipment system has become more complete, the reconnaissance function has become more powerful, and its application in the battlefield has also become a trend of accelerated popularity.
Normal use of unmanned reconnaissance equipment. Since the unmanned reconnaissance platform was first put into use in the Vietnam War, it has appeared in almost all local world wars led by Western powers. During the Gulf War, the United States used five imaging reconnaissance satellites to ensure that front-line combat commanders can obtain information on the movements of the Iraqi forces within 12 to 24 hours. During the Kosovo War, the United States sent predator, hunter, and Global Hawk drones to conduct reconnaissance. Multinational forces continuously provide battlefield information; in the Afghanistan War, the U.S. military used the Parker Porter ground reconnaissance platform to conduct cave search missions; in the Iraq War, the U.S. military used the ground reconnaissance platform to obtain battlefield situation awareness, effectively ensuring intelligence reconnaissance in street fighting; During the Syrian War, the United States and Russia almost used the battlefield as an experimental field for unmanned reconnaissance platforms. Unmanned reconnaissance equipment has many advantages such as small size, low cost, low requirements for the combat environment, and strong battlefield survivability, which can reduce war costs and casualties. Based on this, it can be predicted that in the future battlefield, unmanned reconnaissance equipment will be used more frequently in intelligence reconnaissance and will play a more important role.
The functions of reconnaissance and intelligence operations have become increasingly prominent. When unmanned reconnaissance technology is not one or two, but appears as a “technology group,” the functions of unmanned reconnaissance equipment are also expanding. In the process of practical application, especially after carrying various lethal and non-lethal weapons, unmanned reconnaissance equipment is gradually developing from a pure intelligence, reconnaissance, and surveillance platform to a comprehensive combat platform. The improvement of its strike capability makes reconnaissance intelligence and The gradual integration of offensive actions has promoted the transformation of reconnaissance intelligence from auxiliary combat support to direct combat missions. The U.S. military has clearly defined intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) operations in the Joint Operational Doctrine (JPl-02) and Air Force Operational Doctrine (AFDD2-9). It believes that “ISR is a combat operation rather than a support operation. The basis of combat operations is joint operations across services and fields.” Throughout the recent local wars, the connotation, status, and role of military intelligence have undergone revolutionary changes. The field of countermeasures against reconnaissance intelligence has been continuously expanded, the use of methods has become more diverse, and the basic functions have continued to expand. Reconnaissance intelligence has not only become a key element of combat effectiveness and an important part of systematic combat, but it has also become an independent combat style. Its combat attributes have become increasingly obvious. Reconnaissance intelligence and combat are increasingly integrated.
Force density is rapidly decreasing and personnel roles are facing changes
The history of the development of human warfare shows that the density of combat personnel on the battlefield has shown a downward trend with the development of military technology and weaponry. In the information age, unmanned reconnaissance equipment has become increasingly intelligent, resulting in a sharp decrease in the number of reconnaissance personnel in the mission area, which in turn prompted a quiet change in its role in reconnaissance and intelligence work.
The combat “position” is moving backward. Unmanned reconnaissance equipment that integrates reconnaissance, surveillance, and strike capabilities, such as ground unmanned reconnaissance vehicles and tactical drones, is gradually replacing reconnaissance personnel to carry out reconnaissance and reconnaissance tasks behind enemy lines, forcing reconnaissance personnel to move from forward positions to more Safe regional transfer. Through the operating system software, the reconnaissance personnel far away from the front-line battlefield implement reconnaissance operations off-site and non-contact, thus opening up a new style of intelligence reconnaissance.
Capacity requirements have changed. The technological content of unmanned reconnaissance equipment is getting higher and higher, and the requirements for the quality of the operators are becoming more and more stringent. This quality is not physical, but intelligence, that is, considerable cultural knowledge and professional skills. To meet the needs of future operations, reconnaissance personnel need to “update” their own abilities, focusing on intelligence fusion and comprehensive research and judgment ability training, and realize the transformation from reconnaissance skills to analysis, research and judgment capabilities.
The structure of soldiers is in urgent need of reconstruction. Since the operators of the system are not restricted by age and gender, in the past reconnaissance operations mainly carried out by male scouts, now women can complete the tasks by sitting in front of the computer and manipulating the equipment, and the age requirement has also been greatly relaxed, whether it is just now Adult recruits or veterans over half a hundred years old can do the job. These changes will result in a substantial decrease in reconnaissance personnel, and a relatively increase in technical experts and support personnel. Unmanned reconnaissance equipment will become the main force of the reconnaissance squad, which will lead to fundamental changes in the personnel structure.
The physiological impact is greatly reduced. Reconnaissance intelligence is dangerous, and the work intensity is high. The scouts are easily physically and mentally exhausted, which leads to a decrease in work efficiency. However, as long as the unmanned reconnaissance equipment is supplied with timely power, it can maintain efficient working conditions almost 24 hours a day. The United States’ Global Hawk UAV can fly for 41 hours and perform reconnaissance and surveillance missions around the clock and efficiently. Flying for such a long time is unbearable for manned aircraft pilots, and it is difficult to guarantee that there will be no mistakes. In the future battlefield, unmanned reconnaissance equipment will shift from intervening in reconnaissance operations to leading reconnaissance and intelligence work, and its excellent characteristics of “indefatigable” will effectively reduce the possibility of mistakes in the enemy’s situation caused by human fatigue.
The proportion of technical reconnaissance has risen, and the fog of the battlefield has shown new changes
In the information age, the rapid development of unmanned technology makes human intelligence begin to be transferred or materialized to equipment, and the improvement of equipment performance will promote technical reconnaissance to become a decisive factor in intelligence acquisition.
The status of technical reconnaissance is even more important. Modern warfare has covered multi-dimensional battlefields such as land, sea, air, space, electricity, and the Internet. The scope of reconnaissance has expanded dramatically. In addition, the confidentiality of enemy communications equipment, the tightness of military camouflage, and the speed of maneuvering have greatly increased. To improve and improve the reconnaissance of such a highly modern enemy, traditional reconnaissance methods alone can no longer meet the requirements of combat intelligence. As unmanned reconnaissance equipment continues to enter the war arena and accelerate its popularization and application, the previous action scenarios that mainly relied on reconnaissance personnel to go out or go deep behind enemy lines to obtain intelligence will gradually disappear. Instead, all kinds of advanced high-altitude satellites, concealed flying drones, fully-functional armored reconnaissance vehicles, silent cruising unmanned submarines, etc., will use themselves and special electronic equipment installed in the multi-dimensional battlefield space. Carry out reconnaissance activities on a large scale. These advanced technical reconnaissance methods have long reconnaissance distance, fast speed, and large coverage, and are far more efficient than human reconnaissance. They will surely play an increasingly important role in the future battlefield.
Global Hawk UAV
U.S. Army Keyhole-12 Optical Imaging Satellite
The interference effect of traditional environmental factors is obviously weakened. The natural environment such as terrain, weather, and weather has always been an important factor affecting the efficiency of intelligence reconnaissance, but with the advancement of military technology and the enhancement of reconnaissance equipment performance, this influence will be greatly improved. The U.S. Keyhole-12 optical imaging satellite has a ground resolution of 0.1 meters. The lacrosse radar imaging satellite can identify targets several meters deep underground. The synthetic aperture radar equipped with Darkstar UAV can distinguish fixed targets from ground clutter. And moving targets, and can effectively identify camouflage and penetrating cover. Predator, shadow and other UAVs can overcome the effects of night darkness, rain and fog, and perform reconnaissance missions around the clock. The strong rise of reconnaissance technology will effectively overcome the adverse effects caused by traditional environmental factors and make the battlefield environment in the physical space gradually “clear.”
The influence of grid space factors is increasing day by day. As technological progress gradually lifts the traditional “fog of war”, the influence of virtual space factors such as the network and electromagnetics on reconnaissance intelligence is rapidly increasing. On the one hand, the huge and complex network supports the efficient operation of the entire intelligence system, but the vulnerability of the network itself also brings great security risks. The open interconnection of cyberspace, huge user groups, passive defense features, and unknown security vulnerabilities make cyber attacks highly concealed. The processing and distribution of intelligence cannot be separated from the support of a safe and stable network. Once the network is paralyzed, reconnaissance and intelligence work will be difficult. On the other hand, there are many types of unmanned reconnaissance equipment on the battlefield, especially in the vicinity of key areas and key targets. The large number of frequency equipment used leads to local electromagnetic crowding, prone to frequency self-disturbance phenomena, and the enemy is very likely to implement them against us. Electromagnetic interference and suppression have severely tested the stable operation of unmanned reconnaissance equipment. Therefore, in the future battlefield, despite the increasingly unmanned reconnaissance operations, the reconnaissance intelligence work will still face many difficulties under the interference of new types of “battlefield fog” such as the network and electromagnetic space environment.
The boundary between peace and war is becoming blurred, and the focus of intelligence confrontation begins to move forward
With the rapid development of information technology and successive breakthroughs in key technologies, the battery life and reconnaissance capabilities of unmanned reconnaissance equipment have been greatly improved, making reconnaissance intelligence present new characteristics.
Reconnaissance and surveillance are integrated. The demand for battlefield intelligence has the characteristics of long-term and dynamic nature. To meet this requirement at the same time, reconnaissance and surveillance need to be gradually integrated. The prerequisite for its realization is long-term reconnaissance. With the improvement of power technology, some unmanned reconnaissance platforms have been on duty for several years. For example, the bald solar high-altitude UAV developed by the Boeing Company of the United States can rely on solar energy to fly for up to 5 years. Because of its lower altitude than satellites and long time in the air, its reconnaissance efficiency is much higher than satellites. UAVs like this can not only collect intelligence for a long time, but also capture dynamic information in time, so that the “gap” between reconnaissance and surveillance is gradually closed.
Peace and war intelligence are seamlessly connected. Various unmanned reconnaissance equipment is linked to the information system to form a three-dimensional, all-weather reconnaissance and detection system in outer space, air, ground, sea, and underwater. Various reconnaissance methods complement each other, and various intelligences are mutually confirmed and integrated. The battlefield perception ability has been greatly improved, making the intelligence accumulation in peacetime and the intelligence demand in wartime seamlessly connected. For example, before the Iraq War, the U.S. military had already completed the digitization of the terrain of the entire Iraqi territory and drawn a three-dimensional topographic map. It also used radar imaging satellites to conduct close surveillance of Iraq all-weather and all-time. The intelligence obtained before the war was the U.S. military war. Time verification of targets and commanding operations played an important role.
The counterweight moves forward. In a speech in 2007, Lieutenant General David Deputulla, the US Air Force’s intelligence officer, said: “We killed Zarqawi in Iraq last June. This operation included countless analysis time, about 600 hours of analysis. Predator action time, and 10 minutes of F-16 strike time.” In this case, the process of discovery, positioning, tracking and locking is much longer than the strike time. This reflects that in the future battlefield, advanced reconnaissance equipment has made the battlefield more transparent. The intelligence that originally needed to be sent to the enemy’s back before or during the battle can be grasped in advance through the usual reconnaissance and surveillance. The preparatory work began a few months or even earlier before the war, but the time for real fighting was getting shorter and shorter, forcing the start time of intelligence confrontation to be greatly advanced, and the past concealed pre-war reconnaissance activities would become extremely fierce and fighting. The center of gravity also moved forward.
Action concealment methods are flexible, and intelligence acquisition tends to be real-time
In informationized warfare, whoever can obtain information faster, more accurately, and more safely can take the initiative to grasp the opportunities on the battlefield. Unmanned reconnaissance equipment has become the “new favorite” of reconnaissance intelligence with its advantages of concealment, compactness, intelligence and networking.
The hidden risk of action is small. Sending spies to infiltrate the opponent’s organization or go deep into the opponent’s territory to steal intelligence is risky and difficult. Once exposed, it may trigger major diplomatic crises and political conflicts. However, with the rapid development of aerospace technology, new material technology, nanotechnology and artificial intelligence, Unmanned equipment is developing in the direction of informatization, invisibility and miniaturization. Reconnaissance satellites skimming the sky, stealth drones flying across the country, and unmanned submarines cruising the seas and territories, all can quietly carry out reconnaissance intelligence work. In the future, fly robots, bee scouts, and insect detectors will be used for reconnaissance, even if they step over walls or walk through doors to enter the house, they will be difficult to detect. This greatly reduces the risk of operations and makes the intelligence gathering party more active and more concealed politically.
Norwegian Black Hornet drone
There are many ways to obtain intelligence. Compared with humans, unmanned reconnaissance equipment is even more afraid of “sacrifice”, daring to charge into battle on the battlefield, and able to break into the enemy’s position to detect intelligence without fear. One is to lure the enemy to boot and obtain parameters. The reconnaissance team can dispatch some UAVs or ground armored reconnaissance vehicles to act as decoys to lure the enemy’s radar to start, so that one can quickly grasp the enemy’s radar frequency and position, and provide parameters for subsequent anti-radiation weapons. The second is the forced investigation by mixed groups. When the hostile air defense is relatively tight, the combination of unmanned jammers and unmanned reconnaissance planes can be adopted, with several unmanned jammers in front, taking on the task of interference and suppression, and covering the rear unmanned reconnaissance planes to forcibly penetrate the enemy Perform electronic reconnaissance and photographic reconnaissance missions at deep positions. In an emergency, the unmanned jammer in front can even be used as a “death squad,” which consumes a large amount of enemy air defense weapons and protects the unmanned reconnaissance aircraft to fly directly over the target to perform reconnaissance missions. The third is to bravely break into the restricted area and conduct field investigations. A wide variety of unmanned reconnaissance equipment can enter dangerous areas to perform reconnaissance missions. For example, three-defense reconnaissance robots can enter poisoned areas to detect infections, various ground reconnaissance vehicles can penetrate into the war zone to collect intelligence, and micro-equipment such as the Norwegian Black Hornet UAV with a length of only 0.1 meters can enter buildings and In the basement, real-time images are transmitted to the rear operators in time.
Netgather information responds quickly. With the link and integration of battlefield networks, the early warning range of each unmanned reconnaissance platform is not only the early warning range of its own reconnaissance equipment, but the early warning range of the entire reconnaissance early warning network deployed in different spaces. The early warning time will also depend on the earliest time when an early warning platform in the battlefield network system finds a target, making it possible for targets in key surveillance areas to “be discovered when they appear”. Once the unmanned reconnaissance equipment placed in the network acquires information, it can instantly gather the information into the intelligence database through the data link system, and present it on the large screen of the combat command and control center in the form of a general situation map, and then According to the instructions, it is quickly and accurately distributed to combat forces operating in various battlefield spaces in parallel, providing them with nearly real-time shared intelligence, so that they can learn the battlefield situation as soon as possible, and the first enemy can take combat actions, and then master the battlefield initiative.