“Godzilla 2: King of Monsters”: Biological Quest

  In “Godzilla 2: King of Monsters”, the most attractive characters are undoubtedly the behemoths: trolls. With the help of modern movie special effects technology, those fantasy monsters can roar, run, fly and fight on the screen. Human beings are struggling for survival at the feet of giant monsters, shivering like candles in the wind. Even if they walked out of the cinema, the audience still had lingering fears.
   The reason why a troll is scary is that it is huge. Let’s look at a set of data first:
  Raton: Toothless pterosaur, standing height is about 47 meters, wingspan is about 265.5 meters;
   Mothra: Giant moth, “height on the stomach” is about 15.8 meters, wingspan Approximately 244.8 meters;
   Gidola: a three-headed dragon from an alien planet, with a height of 158.8 meters and a wingspan of about 400 meters;
   Godzilla: the protagonist of the movie, with a height of 119.8 meters and a weight of nearly 100,000 tons.
   So, in real life, is there really such a behemoth?
   Know the real monster
   in real life, in fact, there are some monster, just because they like the general body of animals, plants, as not aggressive to humans, without being noticed by us.
   The largest animal in the world today is the blue whale living in the sea. The average length of an adult blue whale is about 25 meters and the average weight is about 160 tons. A tongue alone weighs 2 tons, which is equivalent to the weight of 30 adults. The largest dinosaur discovered so far is the Fragile Dicavelosaurus. Based on two fossils, some scientists speculated that the body length of the fragile Dicavon was about 40 to 58 meters, and it was as tall as dozens of stories. The average weight was about 180 tons, and the maximum was 220 tons, which is amazing.
   The tallest plant in the world is the Australian Almond Eucalyptus, with a height of 156 meters, which has surpassed the fantasy Godzilla. So far, the longest plant found on earth is the Posidonia seaweed living on the bottom of the North Sea near the Balearic Islands. The longest stem is 8 kilometers long.
   Beyond animals and plants, there are miracles. Armillaria bulbs are a genus of fungi, about 40 species, widely distributed in North America and Europe. The ground fruit body of Armillaria is not particularly large, but the underground mycelium can be described as “metamorphosis”. Scientists discovered a strain of Armillaria bulbum in Michigan, USA. Its mycelium spreads over 0.15 square kilometers and its total weight is estimated to be 100 tons. Scientists also identified a strain of Armillaria in Washington State, USA. It is estimated to be between 400 and 1,000 years old. The mycelium spreads about 6 square kilometers, making it the largest single organism currently known.
   A variety of factors “shape” animal body
   from the perspective of biological evolution, the great size of the animal has certain advantages, such as: the ability to better protect themselves. Of course, the huge body will also bring a lot of inconvenience to animals. In fact, the current size of the animal is the result of a “compromise” after weighing the pros and cons.
   First, the size of an animal is limited by its bones. Enlarge an animal in equal proportions, and its weight will increase in cubes. The animal’s body is supported by bones, and the density and strength of the bones are constant, and the weight it can bear is limited. If the weight exceeds the limit, the animal will not be able to stand upright because the bones cannot bear the weight. For example, African elephants have evolved thick legs in order to support their own weight; while blue whales can survive normally when they are dozens of times larger than elephants, because they live in the sea, and the buoyancy of sea water shares part of the bones and bones. The burden of muscles.
   Second, the size of animals is affected by food. The bigger the animal, the more food it needs to maintain the basic consumption of the body. For example, African elephants eat about 300 kilograms of food and drink 200 kilograms of water every day. When food is scarce, they travel more than 80 kilometers a day in order to find food; blue whales need to eat 2 to 4 tons of food every day. Foraging and giving birth, they migrate thousands of kilometers every year. If there is insufficient food, certain animals will be “dwarfed” due to reduced food sources: European dwarf elephants that once lived on Mediterranean islands are less than 1 meter tall; Floris, who once lived on Flores Island, Indonesia, have an average height of less than 1 meter Rice is the smallest of the 10 human species known to mankind.
   Finally, the size of animals is affected by climatic conditions. The Carboniferous period, which was 355 to 295 million years ago, is called the “Era of Giant Insects”. Insects at that time were generally larger than today, such as giant vein dragonflies with a wingspan of 75 cm. This is because the oxygen content of the air at that time was as high as 35%, and insects “breathed” through their stomatal system. The high-concentration oxygen environment was conducive to the emergence of giant insects.
   In short, the size of animals is now formed under the combined influence of many factors. Animals have evolved diversity as they adapt to the environment. What kind of life will be born on planets that are completely different from the earth’s environment, such as gaseous planets and planets with lower gravity than the earth?
   “Strange” from the heart
   in the mythology of every nation in the world, a huge monster occupies a very important position: Nordic mythology约尔曼冈德and níðhöggr, Chinese mythology and Kun Peng, Indian mythology Garuda in Chinese, Bahamut in Arabic mythology…Why did the ancestors who lived in different time and space imagine the non-existent giant monsters? This is because the ancestors could not understand when they saw various natural phenomena, but they needed an explanation to explain the reasons, such as the lack of the moon, the coming and going of wind and clouds, the rising and falling of tides, etc. The ancient book “Shan Hai Jing” records a divine beast called “Candle Dragon”, with red skin, living in the extreme cold of the north, with a length of thousands of miles, opening eyes for day, closing eyes for night, inhaling for winter, exhaling The air is summer, and this is actually explaining the polar day and night phenomena in the Arctic.
  When the ancestors encountered natural disasters that could not be resisted, such as volcanic eruptions, ground shaking, floods, etc., they needed giant monsters to “back the pot.” The legend of the sea monster “Kraken” in Norwegian mythology is widely circulated: “Kraken” is like a floating island that will cause a huge vortex when it quickly dives into the sea. But in fact, “kraken” is nothing more than people’s explanation of the king squid in the real world. As Norwegian fishermen who depend on the sea for their livelihoods, it is not unusual for them to be attacked by sea creatures such as king squid.
   In order to explain incomprehensible natural phenomena, especially natural disasters that cannot be resisted and conquered, the ancestors made up huge monsters, and then this fiction was passed on in the form of stories, and new incomprehensible ones were continuously added by future generations. Things, after being combined and twisted, eventually become the giant monsters we know today.
   In modern times, although we have been able to scientifically explain many natural phenomena and have made great progress in the defense of natural disasters, our fear of the unknown world is still there, and as long as the fear is still there, we are concerned about the giant Strange fantasy and awe will not disappear. The birth of Godzilla is the best example.
   On March 1, 1954, the United States conducted a hydrogen bomb experiment on Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands, but the power of the explosion far exceeded expectations, and a large amount of dead ashes was scattered outside the preset danger zone. The Japanese fishing boat “Fifth Fulong Maru” 23 of the crew members were exposed to nuclear contamination. Inspired by the “Fifth Fulong Maru” incident, Tanaka Tomoyuki created the earliest image of Godzilla.
   Godzilla represents people’s fear of nuclear weapons and nuclear wars. Unlike natural disasters, nuclear weapons and nuclear wars are created by human beings themselves. Therefore, in film and television dramas, Godzilla’s image has changed and changed: sometimes pure The saboteurs appear only to vent their boundless anger aimlessly; sometimes they are malicious avengers, attacking the saboteurs of nature-mankind; sometimes they are the protector of order, to surpass all violence , To maintain the ecological balance of the entire planet. Therefore, the audience, including the creators, have extremely subtle and complicated feelings for Godzilla.