Common gynecological malignancies

Gynecological malignant tumors, which are malignant tumors that originate in female reproductive organs, such as vagina, uterus, ovary, etc., are a major “killer” of women’s health, especially in the uterus and ovaries. At present, many women die every year due to gynecological malignancies. Celebrities who are not young girls have also suffered. For example, well-known female singers and movie stars such as Anita Mui, Li Yuanyuan and Ye Fan have all died of gynecological malignancies. The occurrence of gynecological malignant tumors is related to factors such as female endocrine disorders. Women should take care of their bodies and prevent gynecological diseases.

So, what are the common gynecological malignancies? In general, gynecological malignancies are divided into two categories: carcinoma and sarcoma. The former is derived from epithelial cells and is more common clinically, such as cervical cancer, endometrial cancer, and ovarian cancer. The latter is derived from mesenchymal cells and is relatively rare, such as uterine sarcoma. It is worth mentioning that all gynecological malignant tumors will have irregular vaginal bleeding in the early stage, so once the patient has this condition, we must be vigilant and never take it lightly. Early gynecological malignant tumors can be cured by surgery and other treatments, but if the disease progresses to an advanced stage, it is difficult to treat. Therefore, early detection and early treatment are essential.

Below we specifically introduce the types of common gynecological malignancies.

Cervical cancer
Cervical cancer occurs in the cervical epithelium and is one of the most common malignant tumors in women. It can be seen in different age groups, especially middle-aged and elderly women over 40 years old.

The occurrence of cervical cancer is mostly related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. At present, with the birth of HPV vaccine, cervical cancer has gradually become a preventable and controllable disease.

The most typical symptom of cervical cancer at the beginning is vaginal bleeding, from initial contact bleeding to later irregular vaginal bleeding, accompanied by white or bloody fluid outflow. As the tumor compresses adjacent organs, frequent urination, urgency, and constipation will occur. If the tumor invades the ureter, hydronephrosis and renal failure will also occur. Severe anemia, cachexia, etc. may occur in advanced patients.

Endometrial cancer
Endometrial cancer occurs in the epithelium of the endometrium and is more common in perimenopausal and postmenopausal periods. In my country, the incidence of endometrial cancer is second only to cervical cancer.

The cause of endometrial cancer is unknown, and it is divided into two types: estrogen-dependent (type Ⅰ) and non-estrogen-dependent (type Ⅱ).

The initial symptom of endometrial cancer is also vaginal bleeding. Generally, the amount of bleeding is relatively small, and it is easy to be mistaken for irregular menstruation. Some patients will also have abnormal vaginal discharge, discharge foul-smelling pus and blood-like fluid. Later, the patient may have bursts of pain in the lower abdomen, as well as palpable masses in the lower abdomen. In severe cases, fever may occur due to purulent lesions. In the end, the patient may develop cachexia.

The degree of malignancy of endometrial cancer is lower than that of cervical cancer, but it does harm to women’s health.

Uterine Sarcoma
Uterine sarcoma is a malignant tumor that occurs in non-epithelial mesenchymal cells of the uterus, such as smooth muscle, interstitium, and connective tissue inside and outside the uterus. It usually occurs between 30 and 50 years of age. Divided into two kinds of high and low.

Uterine sarcoma is generally not easy to find at an early stage due to lack of specific symptoms. The early symptoms are usually abnormal vaginal bleeding, especially in postmenopausal women who still experience bleeding. With the continuous enlargement of the tumor, bleeding and even tissue necrosis and other factors, it can cause abdominal mass and lower abdominal pain. Patients will also have abnormal vaginal discharge, which is usually serous, bloody or white fluid. If it is infected, it will be pus with peculiar smell. When the disease progresses to an advanced stage, the patient will experience weight loss, dysuria, ascites, fever, and anemia.

Ovarian cancer
Ovarian cancer is a malignant tumor that occurs in ovarian epithelial cells. It mostly occurs after menopause. Generally, there are no obvious symptoms in the early stage, and the common symptoms in the late stage of the disease are as follows.

1. Bloating. It is mainly caused by enlarged tumors or combined abdominal and pelvic fluid.

2. Abdominal pain. Bleeding, tissue necrosis, and rapid tumor growth can cause abdominal pain.

3. Weight loss. Late-stage patients may be accompanied by weight loss.

The above is the popular science knowledge of some common gynecological malignant tumors. Women should take good care of their bodies to avoid the occurrence of gynecological diseases. I hope that women can be free from gynecological malignant tumors!