George Kelly expressed this view in 1955. He believes that people’s behavior and behavior are related to the subjective ideas that people use to explain the world: people’s constructs. For example, if a thing has four legs, a seat and a back, you might call it a chair, because these characteristics fit your “chair” category. This is the first theory that emphasizes that a person’s way of thinking is the root of personality, which is why many modern psychologists call it a cognitive theory. Although Kelly’s ideas are widely known today, when he first published these ideas, they did not attract much attention.
Over the years, psychologists who study personality have put forward endless theories about how personality develops and how it affects a person. Because they did not receive much attention, some theorists once had strong followers, but later fell out of favor. Take Sigmund Freud as an example. At the beginning of the 20th century, he believed that our subconsciousness drives who we are. His views inspired Alfred Adler and Carl Jung to form their own views. Although their contributions are important in the history of the field, modern personality psychologists tend to focus on other major theories. Here, we will introduce you to some of these theories, as well as some popular tests.
Albert Bandura and Walter Michel are important supporters of this theory. According to social cognitive theorists, we develop our personality through the interaction of our thoughts with the social environment. Unlike most other frameworks, social cognitive methods are more interested in how we adjust our behavior in different environments.
Based on traits
According to this school, we think, feel, and act in the same way at different times and in different situations, and these consistency are called characteristics. Nowadays, theoretical tests based on personality traits are relatively easy to use and therefore quite common. Several scholars in the 20th century made significant contributions, such as Gordon Allport, Raymond Cartel and Hans Eysenck, who were more than just a founder.
Since his first opinion was published in the 1920s, Allport has been constantly improving his theory. He emphasized the importance of the individual, rather than agreeing that everyone fits a set of universal characteristics. For example, Allport tends to use a person’s in-depth case studies to build a person’s personality profile, rather than having someone take a standardized test. Although his work was impressive, he lacked data to support his theory, and he, like Rogers, did not develop measurement methods to test his concepts.
Raymond Cartel and Hans Eysenck
Like most other personality theorists, Cartel believes to a large extent that there are universal personality traits that apply to everyone. After doing some statistical work in the late 1940s, he defined 16 personality traits—such as conservative/extroverted, trusting/suspicious, and relaxed/tension—he believed that these traits represented the core of personality. Cartel believes that these qualities are generally stable, but he admits that people’s emotions and social roles also affect their behavior. Although his theory is more testable than other theories, 16 variables constitute a complex analysis. The trait theory published by Eysenck in 1947 overlaps with Cartel’s theory, but there are also several major differences. Most importantly, he simplified a few things and put forward three main characteristics: introversion/extroversion, neuroticism and hypersensitivity. Eysenck also believes that biology affects certain traits. For example, he believes that due to brain differences, introverts are more likely to be mentally stimulated than extroverts, so they avoid participating in activities such as noisy parties that overburden them. In general, although Eysenck’s theory is easier to verify than Cartel’s theory, many psychologists believe that Eysenck’s theoretical framework has some unsuitable characteristics.
Carl Rogers supported this theory in the mid-20th century. Unlike Freud, he believes that “our subjective conscious experience-our phenomenological experience-our self-awareness” is the key to personality. Rogers believes that our behavior stems from the need to align our daily experience with the way we see ourselves. For example, if you think you are polite, then you may show it politely. His theory has a major flaw: there are not many feasible scientific methods to measure and test these key concepts.
Five Personality Theories
Perhaps the most popular in the branch of personality psychology are the five personalities, which were developed from research at the end of the 20th century. As you might guess, it is not really attributable to any particular founder. At its core are five characteristics: openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, pleasantness, and neuroticism or emotional stability. The first letter of these five traits constitutes the word “OCEAN”, and this theory is also called the ocean of personality. Many personality psychologists agree with the five personality theories, which are the clever combination of the 16 root traits proposed by Cartel and Eysenck’s only three traits.
Repetitive tests are not just a fun way to spend time online. They can play an important role in many things, from determining who is suitable for the job to helping therapists find treatment options for their patients.
The Rorschach test is the most famous projected personality test, a set of tests defined by their ambiguity: by presenting the testees a standardized pattern formed by accidental ink stains, allowing the testees to freely watch and speak The things that are associated from this, then these reactions are classified and recorded with symbols, and analyzed, and then the various characteristics of the subjects are diagnosed. In 1921, Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach published 10 ink cards, which were developed through repeated trials of hospitalized patients. Answers consistent with the imprinted structure indicate healthy mental function. The Rorschach test is also called the ink stain test because it uses the ink stain map, and it is now widely used by countries all over the world.
Five Personality Questionnaires
Macquarie and Costa compiled the “Five Personality Factors Measurement Scale.” This is one of the most widely used and direct personality tests. You only need to simply evaluate your usual behavior, not what you think you will be in the future, or what you want you to be. On the right is a simplified unofficial version of this test.
Personal Construction Theory Test
George Kelly, the founder of personal construct/cognitive theory, developed this tool, often referred to as a representative test. This theory emphasizes the role of cognition in the formation and development of personality, and emphasizes the individual’s unique understanding of the world. The theory holds that people’s knowledge of objective existence, personal experience, and ideas are the main factors that affect the formation and development of personality. The test has two steps: first, list 20 to 30 people who play a specific role in your life, such as mother or friend; the second part is the key to the test, the supervisor selects three people from the list and asks You describe how similar the two of them are and how different they are from the third. According to Kelly’s theory, every trio should reveal a construct you have constructed, thereby revealing how you view the world. Because of its openness, the information revealed by this test is twice that of the five major questionnaires.
Subject perception test
Another projection test, Thematic Sense Test (TAT for short) consists of a series of cards. The full set of quizzes has 30 vague pictures of people with various vague scenes. Similar to the Rorschach test, the key is to interpret the scene and describe what you think is happening. Participants project their thoughts and feelings onto the hero in the picture when they tell the story. Murray’s method is to analyze a series of “needs” and “pressures” from the story. He believes that needs can derive pressure, and it is precisely because needs and pressure control people’s behavior that it affects the formation and development of personality. Therefore, the theme perception test can reflect a person’s personality characteristics. Clinicians also use the test results for pathological analysis.