Chemical Holy Land Itby

  Almost every small village in Sweden is picturesque, but Itby is an exception. It looks plain and unobtrusive. However, this does not prevent it from being famous all over the world. You know, it is the birthplace of seven kinds of chemical elements, and there are as many as four kinds of chemical elements directly named after Itby.
  Itby is located on the east coast of Sweden. It is a small village that is too ordinary. At the beginning of the 18th century, this was the place where local people mined feldspar. In the eyes of the villagers, feldspar is not a rarity, but it can make porcelain. There is a market and a large demand. People only regard feldspar mining as a livelihood. However, for lovers who like to study chemistry and collect ores, they will not easily miss any place where minerals are produced, because they want to find and discover some special minerals.
  However, discovering special minerals is not an easy task. People who like ore come in and out, but in the end they all come by chance and return empty-handed. However, Karl Arenius, a hobbyist who studies chemistry and mineralogy, who likes to collect ores, and a Swedish veteran, is different. He always insists on searching in the Itby mine, and will never retreat if he does not achieve his goals. the meaning of. One day in 1787, Karl came to the mine as usual. He made careful observations while chatting kindly with the villagers of the mine. Suddenly, a piece of black mineral that looked like asphalt and coal caught his attention. His breath was inexplicably tense, and he felt subconsciously that this mineral has never been seen before. Karl collected this black mineral and named it Itby Ore using local place names.
  Karl thought he had discovered a new tungsten ore, so he sent the sample to the Finnish chemist John Gadolin. John carefully analyzed and studied this sample of Itby ore. In 1794, he declared that it was a new type of “soil” because the mineral contained about 38% of the oxide “new soil” of unknown elements. From these ores, we first obtained a new metal element oxide-yttrium oxide. In 1797, Swedish chemist Ekberg confirmed this “new earth”, which is also the first rare earth compound known.
  Since then, chemists have successively separated more rare earth elements from Itby ’s ore. Interestingly, the names of the four elements are taken directly from Itby (a different letter cut from Ytterby): Yttrium, Ytterbium, Terbium, and Erbium. However, new elements in the Itby mine are being discovered one after another. Chemists feel that it is not appropriate to continue to name elements from the letters of Ytterby, so they finally give up this lazy naming method. Later, the other elements discovered through Itby ore were given such names: holmium, thulium, and scandium.
  A small village discovered seven chemical elements, and Itby became a well-known chemical holy place. But why did this small village find so many new elements? In fact, this is related to the characteristics of rare earth elements. It is important to know that rare earth elements often occur together in nature, and it is more difficult to separate each other, so ore from the same place can be continuously separated and new elements discovered. These rare earth elements have not only perfected the chemical periodic table of elements, but also all kinds of elements have important uses.
  To commemorate this small village that has made outstanding contributions to the discovery of chemical elements, people named the roads in the village with the name of the element and erected a commemorative nameplate at the entrance of the abandoned Aitby mine. The small village of Itby became a chemical holy place and historical landmark in people’s minds.