How does exercise affect the body’s immune system? When the body exercises, the body releases a stress hormone cortisol. When exercised in an appropriate amount, this cortisol can help muscle regeneration, maintain blood sugar levels and enhance the defense function of the immune system. At the same time, exercise can sharply increase neutrophils and enhance the vitality of natural killer cells, macrophages and T lymphocytes, which can engulf viruses that invade the body.
However, excessive exercise or inactivity at home will affect the level of white blood cells and other cells in the immune system, thereby interfering with the body’s ability to respond to foreign bacteria and viruses and coping and causing illness.
To put it simply, moderate exercise helps improve human immunity. People who do not exercise are not only prone to obesity, but also have poor immunity, and are more susceptible to viruses. How to grasp this degree?
Children and adolescents
In the special period of epidemic prevention, for children and adolescents, from the perspective of their physiological and anatomical characteristics and autoimmune function, respiratory infections are more likely to occur, and the younger they are, the less likely they are to be discovered. Protection and observation are the key points for preventing infections of young children.
For children and adolescents, the primary purpose of home exercise is to increase the amount of physical activity, relieve physical discomfort caused by sedentary, adjust the physical and mental state, so that they maintain a strong energy and full fighting spirit. Do n’t think that you can improve your own immunity through occasional exercise. Improper exercise will temporarily reduce your immunity and increase the risk of illness.
Therefore, children and adolescents should exercise moderately and moderately at home, exercise should be moderate to low-intensity, maintain appropriate exercise intervals, and feel that the body feels slightly sweating. Keep warm and rest after exercise. It is recommended to carry out 20∽30 minutes of home exercise in the morning, afternoon, and evening. It is recommended to carry out more parent-child interaction exercises, which can not only enhance the family’s immunity and enhance the parent-child relationship, but also release the child’s nature and be happy in the exercise. Exercise should also grasp the following principles.
Safety principle: During sports, the range of physical activity and the difficulty of movement should be within a safe and controllable range. It is best to have parents accompanied to participate in the exercise. At the same time, due to the limited indoor venues, children should be prevented from running fast to avoid knocking. Injuries, bruises.
The principle of moderation: During the epidemic prevention at home, to ensure safe and effective exercise, exercise intensity must be controlled within an appropriate range. The intensity is too low to achieve the effect of exercise; sudden high-intensity, long-term exercise will lead to dysfunction of the body, harm the body, and even reduce the immune function, making children more susceptible to disease. Appropriate exercise intensity can be judged by the following feelings: light breathlessness after exercise, a slight heat around the body, a reddish complexion, a light and happy heart, although a little tired, but can disappear after rest.
Diversity principle: Children’s brains are strong in excitement and weak in inhibition, lack of lasting concentration, high interest in new things, but poor persistence. Therefore, the ways and means for children to exercise at home should be varied. In daily exercise, different forms of exercise should be combined as much as possible to increase children’s interest in sports.
Recommended sports ————
Learn to climb
Even if the house is small, a large clean floor can still be squeezed out. Parents make full use of the floor and take their children to learn animal climbing.
Wasn’t the epidemic caterpillar crawling online some time ago? In fact, learning to crawl with animals is similar to that, but we can change it slightly, such as learning to crawl with cats, landing on all fours, and crawling forward with your knees hanging in the air.
Throwing paper balls
Parents can use the discarded paper to make a ball, and then choose a wall to let the child stand in front of the wall. The parents begin to throw the paper ball at the child. The child can squat down and stand up to avoid the thrown paper ball. This parent-child exercise can exercise the coordination of the child and also the sharpness of the child. The important thing is that because the paper is thrown, it will not make too much noise, affecting the neighbors downstairs.
Listen to the password
Forward action: Parents give the password to allow the child to move forward, backward, turn backward, turn left, turn right, move forward 45 degrees to the left, and move forward 45 degrees to the right.
Reverse action: The parent issues the password and asks the child to do the above actions contrary to the instructions.
Parents push their hands and feet on the ground in a push-up position, and the body and the ground form a “cave” shape. The child drills from the left side of the “cave” to the right (or right to left), then gets up and runs around the parent’s body once again Drill “cave”. Parents can adjust the height of the “cave” (that is, the distance between the body and the ground) according to the child’s figure and movement sensitivity.
The child pretends to be a car, landing on the ground with both hands in a prone position, and his arms are stretched as much as possible; the parent plays the cart, holding the child’s ankles with both hands, and the two cooperate to move forward with their hands and feet respectively. Parents should not push forward hard, should be consistent with the speed of the person posing, and maintain body balance; determine the activity time of the stroller according to personal physical conditions to avoid sports injury caused by insufficient strength.
According to the size of the room and the child’s actual ability, place 5-10 sheets of A4 paper in a straight line every 30-50 cm on the ground (if there is no A4 paper, other paper can be used instead); the child stands on one foot, starting from the first Jump one foot forward to the second sheet of paper, and then jump forward to the last sheet of paper in turn; change your feet and stand, and return to the starting point with the second step. One back and forth as a group, rest 1-2 minutes intermittently, practice 2-3 groups.
Keep your hands on your knees (on the mat), with your hands slightly wider than your shoulders and your arms straight; your body is in a straight line from head to knees; bend your elbows, your body sinks, until your chest almost touches the ground, and the angle between your upper arms and trunk is about 45 , And then return to the original posture; practice 5 to 10 times at a constant speed according to personal strength, and exercise 2 groups again after an intermittent rest of 1-2 minutes; keep the abdomen tight during the whole exercise, and do not collapse the waist or raise the hips.
When exercising at home during an epidemic, adults should not only choose the amount of exercise combined with their previous exercise experience and their physical foundation, but also choose the corresponding exercise intensity according to their age. In general, compared with the elderly, adults can choose exercise methods with relatively greater exercise intensity, and gradually control the amount of exercise in accordance with their personal circumstances.
Because it is exercise during the epidemic period, avoid reducing its own immune ability due to excessive strength. The intuitive criterion for measuring whether exercise intensity is appropriate is that after exercise, you sweat slightly, breathing and heartbeat are slightly faster, but you can speak normally; there may be some muscle pain, but it can recover after a few hours. During home exercise, maintain a comprehensive and balanced nutrition intake, regular daily living and adequate sleep.
Recommended sports ————
Lie on the ground with your arms flat on your side, legs together, hips and knees bent so that your thighs are perpendicular to the ground, your calves are parallel to the ground, and your toes are straight. Abdomen, head, shoulders lifted off the ground, look at the legs; two arms straight up from the ground and placed on both sides of the knee, palm down; inhale, and then controlled by the strength of the abdominal muscles and quadriceps , Straighten your legs slowly, and at a 45-degree angle to the ground; at the same time raise both arms, so that the upper arm is on the side of the ear. Exhale and bend your knees back to the original position.
To increase the difficulty: stay in the posture for 3 seconds or sandwich a light weight dumbbell between the two ankles.
Single leg flexion & curl
Standing, legs apart and hip width apart, hands clasped waist, elbow joint abduction; straighten chest, abdomen, look forward, tie a light weight dumbbell to the left ankle. Controlled by the power of the quadriceps, slowly raise the foot to about 10 cm high from the ground, and straighten the legs; after repeated several times, return to the original position, the left thigh remains vertical, controlled by the power of the biceps After lifting the knee, lift the calf to be parallel to the ground; repeat several times, and then change the other leg to do the same movement, so it is a complete group.
Lunge squat, turn
Stand with your feet apart and hip-width apart; hold a light-weight dumbbell in each arm and hang down on your side, stand up, chest up, abdomen, and shoulders down; step forward with your right foot and bend your knees to squat so that your right thigh is almost on the floor Parallel, the ankle joint is directly under the knee joint, the toes are inwardly buckled, the soles of the feet are on the ground, the knee joint of the left leg is almost in contact with the floor, the toes are supported on the ground, the heels are lifted slightly outwards; Side (. When you stand up, put your arms down, and stretch your legs at the same time, so that the center of gravity of the body is vertically upward and retract your right foot. Change the left leg forward, squat, and twist your upper body to the right; this is a complete one action.
Squat is a whole-body exercise. It can train the thighs, buttocks, and thigh muscles. It can also strengthen bones, ligaments, and tendons across the lower body. Appropriate squats can also exercise vital capacity and strengthen the heart, and can play a role in weight loss. During the epidemic, you may wish to do squat exercise to achieve the role of physical exercise.
Opening and closing jump
Straighten your body in the open space of the living room with your hands on your side; when you jump, your feet are outward and your arms are raised high; when you are on the ground, your feet are buried together, put your hands back on both sides, and repeat the above actions. Open and close exercise can exercise the muscles of shoulders, arms and legs, put the whole body into a state of exercise, and accelerate the burning of body fat.
On the yoga mat, the feet are the same width as the shoulders, and use elbows and toes to support the body, try to keep the body parallel to the ground, and keep it for about 1 minute. The flat support looks simple, but it has certain requirements for the bones and muscles of the arms, wrists, shoulders, and waist. Appropriate tablet support can exercise the whole body muscles, which is helpful for weight loss.
Lie down on the yoga mat with your knees flexed together, put your hands behind your head, use the abdominal muscles to contract, sit up quickly, then return to lying down and continue. This action promotes the enhancement of abdominal muscles and can improve abdominal obesity.
The physiological characteristics of the elderly are that with the aging of various organs, the functions of the nervous system, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, digestive system, exercise system and other aspects are degraded to a greater extent than in adulthood. Especially during the epidemic, older people and those with asthma, diabetes, heart disease and other diseases are more likely to be infected with the new coronavirus. In response to the epidemic prevention and control, the Office of the National Working Committee on Aging made 12 recommendations, of which the seventh recommendation clearly stated that: reasonable and appropriate physical exercise, indoor space activities can be used. Ensure adequate and regular sleep and keep your body and mind happy.
Therefore, the main purpose of home exercise for the elderly is to improve cardiopulmonary function, maintain muscle strength and flexibility, balance and other basic activities, improve immunity, prevent and improve chronic diseases; and through home exercise to ease the mood, maintain an optimistic, confident and good attitude, cooperate with science The meal and adequate rest fully enhance the anti-viral ability.
Therefore, the elderly have the following main principles of home exercise
Keep abreast of your physical condition at all times, safety first. Do not rush to exercise when you have a cold, fever, unstable blood sugar or blood pressure, or lack of sleep. Overweight people, old people with osteoporosis and bone and joint disease should not do jumping action. Hypertensive patients should try to avoid breath-holding or excessively hard movements, or suddenly bend their heads and bend down. During exercise, chest tightness, shortness of breath, nausea, chest pain, or dizziness, please stop exercise, rest quietly, and seek medical attention immediately if serious.
Reasonably control the intensity of exercise, and the intensity of home exercise of the elderly should be moderate. The so-called medium intensity refers to the feeling of rapid heartbeat and breathing every time you exercise, you can talk but not sing. However, the adaptability of the elderly to exercise intensity varies with factors such as age, physical fitness, and exercise foundation. For those with weaker fitness or initial exercise, the exercise should start with low intensity and short time, and then gradually after adaptation Increase exercise intensity.
Participate in exercise regularly and persistently. The recommended amount of exercise by the World Health Organization is that elderly people complete at least 150 minutes of aerobic exercise per week, and these 150 minutes can be distributed within 3 to 7 days per week. During exercise, the elderly can be completed in stages. For example, the 30-minute exercise time is divided into several minutes for each period. As long as they can reach moderate intensity, they can be accumulated into the total amount of exercise. Avoid three days of fishing and two days of net-style exercise.
Pay attention to warm-up activities and finishing activities before and after exercise. The older you are, the more you need to be prepared for the activity. Stretching for about 10 minutes and walking slowly can avoid sports injuries.
Exercise as diverse as possible. The exercise method for the elderly at home exercise is mainly aerobic and strength exercise, taking into account flexibility and balance quality exercises. At the same time, the elderly should choose whole-body sports to avoid overloading a certain limb or organ.
Regular exercise habits should be maintained during home exercise. Ensure adequate sleep, pay attention to diet and nutrition. The diet is mainly digestible, containing sufficient protein and vitamins, and low in fat. To control the intake of calories, sugar and salt, no smoking, alcohol.
Recommended sports ————
Relax your body and breathe naturally for a while. Then put the right hand on the belly navel and the left hand on the chest. When inhaling, expand the abdomen outward to the maximum extent, keeping the chest still. When exhaling, contract the abdomen inward as much as possible, keeping the chest still. Every 5-15 minutes, 30 minutes is best, once a day. Pay attention to two points when doing this exercise:
(1) Inhale through the nose and exhale through the mouth, whether it is inhaled or exhaled, try to reach the “limit” amount, that is, if you can’t breathe, you can’t breathe again.
(2) Breathing should be long and slow, with a breath and a breath of about 15 seconds. Inhale deeply (bulge belly) for 3-5 seconds, hold your breath for 1 second, then exhale slowly (retract belly) for 3-5 seconds, hold your breath for 1 second.
Drink a glass of cold water before exercise. Then, lie on your back on the bed (or on the floor), the pillow need not be too high, and your hands and feet will lie flat. After 1 minute of inactivity, slowly lift your hands up, feet up, and form a 90-degree angle between the limbs and the body. Then, the limbs were gently shaken at the same time, 3 to 5 minutes each time, morning and evening. Shaking exercises can promote blood circulation and help relieve headaches (neurology), high blood pressure (cardiothoracic surgery cardiovascular medicine), and back pain and other diseases.
Pacing back and forth inside the house, without hurrying and walking, evenly walking, insisting on taking more than 3000 steps, you can achieve the effect of walking normally. While pacing at home, you can also listen to light music or news, and unknowingly completed the exercise task that morning. In this way, pacing can move the whole body, promote blood circulation, and relax the body after a night of sleep.
Put your hands on your hips, keep your feet as wide as your shoulders, look straight at your eyes, squat your knees slowly, lift your heels off the ground, focus on your toes, and read the word “Ha” in your mouth to spit out the turbid gas in your abdomen and inhale when standing I want to keep Dantian, thinking that I have drawn fresh air into Dantian. Exercise should be slow, and start again and again. Middle-aged and elderly people can exercise slower or take a semi-squat position. Practice 2 to 3 times a day, about 30 times each time.
Sit on the sofa, move your hands, or clap your hands, or pull ups. After doing this for 30 times each, switch to eye exercises, ear rubs, and abdominal exercises. In addition, “shaking his head and shaking his head, scratching his ears and scratching his head” is also a good exercise method, and is very suitable for the elderly. The so-called shaking of the head is to shake the head up and down slowly from left to right, with the standard of not dizzy and dizzy. The so-called scratching your ears and rubbing your cheeks means rubbing your ears, repeating 50 times from top to bottom. Because the ears concentrate the acupuncture points of various parts of the human body, constantly stimulating the effect of preventing diseases and strengthening the body.