“The old bones are brittle” is an indisputable fact. According to relevant data, the main cause of disability and death of elderly people over 75 years is falls. The intrinsic factors are balance, gait and movement problems, visual impairment, taking 4 or more drugs, orthostatic hypotension, and cognitive impairment. Or depression; external factors include too dark or steep stairs, too slippery floors, loose carpets, and lack of protective equipment. Therefore, it is critical to take precautions in advance.
Domestic geriatric experts point out that taking the following measures can reduce the incidence of falls and complications (such as fractures, disability, and even death) in the elderly:
1. Practice Tai Chi. For elderly people who have normal physical conditions and normal limb function, practicing Tai Chi can help improve muscle strength and balance, and can effectively prevent falls. It has been observed that practicing Taijiquan for 15 weeks can improve muscle strength and balance function, especially in elderly women with osteoporosis. After exercise, physical stability can be improved, thereby reducing the risk of falling. Tai Chi can be practiced either in group training or at home, under the guidance of an experienced trainer, 2 to 3 times a week.
2. Eliminate indoor risk factors. For the elderly with reduced mobility, the floor of each room in the home should be flat, and every corner of the room, cluttered items, and even decorative items in the aisle may hinder walking and become a trap for falls. It is recommended not to place magazine racks and small bonsai in places with frequent walks. Clothing, food and other daily items should be placed in a reachable cabinet, and the soup or grease spilled on the ground should be wiped off in time. Be sure to pay attention to any obstacles or smoothness of the floor when carrying things with both hands.
3. Take care of the bathroom. The bathroom is the place with the greatest potential safety hazards. In the design, special attention should be paid to non-slip. A small blanket or pad can be placed at the door of the toilet to wipe your feet. Divide the wet and dry areas, choose mosaic floors, non-slip mats, wall armrests, and toilets (preferably with armrests on both sides). When the elderly get up, they will be more stable, thereby reducing the occurrence of safety accidents.
4. Make sure the lighting is normal. Elderly people are slow to color and moving objects. They can put a lamp on the bedside table and wake up at night to turn on the lights and then get up at night. A flashlight can also be placed beside the bed for emergency use in case of power failure. Lights should be soft and bright at night without glare, so that the elderly can see the ground clearly.
5. Wear suitable shoes. Elderly people should wear shoes with flat soles, non-slip and light weight, suitable size, high sole friction coefficient, firm and fitting shoes, preferably with elastic bands to avoid loosening when walking.
6. Use a crutch. Elderly people are usually not very stable when walking or their physical strength is not good. Crutches are a good helper for elderly people. Walking and walking with crutches can reduce the incidence of falls.
7. Take medicine. First aid for the elderly should be prepared at the bedside. For patients with coronary heart disease, nitroglycerin tablets, isoamyl nitrite and other drugs should be prepared. When angina attacks occur at night, a hand can be prescribed to win first aid time.
8. Doorbell. Don’t respond quickly to the doorbell sound after the elderly fall asleep. Allow the children to open the door. This can avoid changing the position immediately after hearing the loud sound and causing transient cerebral ischemia, which can induce stroke.
9. Get up at night. Older men often suffer from prostatic hypertrophy and often need to urinate at night about 3 times. It is recommended not to lock the door when going to the toilet. Some elderly people may not even make a sound after the danger occurs. A call bell should be installed in the toilet where the elderly can reach out, so that they can quickly call for help in the event of an accident.
10. Ask for help. Children usually presume help text messages in the elderly’s mobile phone so that they can call for doctors urgently after a fall.