First, reduce sodium intake
At present, the international standard is to limit salt to 5g per day, and China’s per capita salt intake is much higher than this. All patients with hypertension should take various measures to limit sodium intake.
The main measures are:
(1) Reduce cooking salt and high sodium condiments (including monosodium glutamate, soy sauce), increase potassium salt intake, potassium salt ≥4.7 g per day;
(2) Do not eat salty snacks, choose fresh foods, avoid or reduce processed foods with high sodium and salt content, such as pickles, ham, various types of pickled products;
(3) Do not place salt shakers on the table, use a quantitative salt spoon when cooking;
(4) Look at the food labels, choose foods with lower sodium content, and increase the intake of potassium-rich foods (fresh vegetables, fruits, and beans).
Second, a reasonable diet
It is recommended that patients with high blood pressure and those with normal blood pressure who are at high risk of hypertension should eat fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy products, whole grains rich in dietary fiber, and plant-derived proteins, and consume at least 500g of vegetables and fruits per day. Reduce your intake of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol. Encourage the elderly to consume a variety of fresh vegetables, fruits, fish, soy products, whole grains, skim milk and other foods rich in potassium, calcium, dietary fiber, and polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Third, regular exercise
Regular exercise, 4 to 7 days a week, a total of 30 to 60 minutes of medium-intensity aerobic physical exercise (such as walking, jogging, cycling, swimming, etc.). Exercise intensity must vary from person to person. Start with a mild warm-up activity of 5 to 10 minutes, and perform endurance or aerobic exercise step by step. Avoid blind and vigorous exercise. The maximum heart rate during exercise is commonly used to evaluate exercise intensity. Medium intensity exercise Exercise that reaches 60% to 70% of maximum heart rate [maximum heart rate (beats / minute) = 220-age]. It is recommended not to exercise more than moderate intensity. High-risk patients need to be evaluated before exercising. Vigorous exercise is not recommended for older people.
Fourth, do not smoke or quit
Physicians should strongly recommend and urge hypertensive patients to quit smoking. Ask each patient about the number of daily smoking and smoking habits, and use a clear, strong, personalized way to recommend that they quit. After evaluating the smokers’ willingness to quit, help smokers adopt the “abrupt stop” after a 1-2 week preparation period. “The law” began to quit smoking; instruct patients to use smoking cessation drugs to combat withdrawal symptoms, such as nicotine patches, nicotine chewing gum, bupropion hydrochloride sustained-release tablets, and vaniklan; follow-up and supervision of successful smoking cessation to avoid relapse.
Five, do not drink
Long-term heavy drinking can lead to increased blood pressure. Limiting alcohol consumption can significantly reduce the risk of hypertension. It is recommended that patients with hypertension do not drink alcohol. The World Health Organization lists alcohol as a primary carcinogen. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) research shows that 5.5% of cancers worldwide and 5.8% of cancer deaths are caused by alcohol. The World Health Organization believes that there is no “safety line” for drinking. Even a small amount of alcohol may bring serious health risks. Limiting alcohol is good for health, and it is best not to drink. Older people should limit alcohol intake.
Six, maintain ideal body weight
Overweight and obesity are important causes of elevated blood pressure. Weight loss is suitable for all hypertensive patients, especially overweight and obese, it is the most obvious method of non-drug treatment of hypertension. It is recommended to maintain weight within a healthy range (BMI: 18.5-23.9 kg / m2, waist circumference <90cm for men, <85cm for women). Control your weight, including controlling energy intake, increasing physical activity, and behavioral interventions. Reduce total daily calorie intake based on a balanced diet, and control high-calorie foods (high-fat foods, sugary drinks, alcohol, etc.) and carbohydrate intake. Build diet awareness, plan meals, keep track of food types and weights, and count calories. For those who are not satisfied with comprehensive lifestyle interventions for weight loss, medication or surgery is recommended. The weight-loss plan should be adhered to for a long time, and the speed varies from person to person. It is recommended to set a target of a recommended weight loss of 2 to 2.5 kg per month, a weight loss of 5% to 10% of the initial weight within one year, and a BMI of less than 24. For special populations, such as lactating women and the elderly, individualized weight loss measures should be adopted according to specific circumstances. Especially the elderly should pay more attention to avoid excessive weight loss. Seven, improve sleep Develop a good regular living habit and try to fall asleep at the same time every day. Every night from 10pm to 6am is the best time to sleep. Middle-aged and elderly people who don't sleep enough for half an hour are recommended. There should be a suitable environment for sleeping. The indoor temperature should be appropriate, quiet, ventilated, and bedding comfortable. Do not exercise vigorously before bedtime, do not overeat or drink tea, coffee, avoid watching irritating TV, movies and books, take part in outdoor physical activities, take a walk after dinner, wash your face and feet with warm water, take a hot bath before bedtime , Wear loose clothes and listen to some soft music. Or read some boring professional books for simple thinking exercises. Or drink a glass of warm milk before bedtime, orally take a small amount of sleep-assisting drugs such as Zaoren Anshen Oral Liquid, and if necessary take some tranquilizers with less side effects. Eight, keep warm The elderly are poor at adapting to cold and regulating blood pressure, and often have seasonal blood pressure fluctuations. The indoor temperature should be kept warm, and the temperature difference between indoor and outdoor should not be too large. Ventilate frequently; reduce outings during sudden cold and strong winds; add clothing in moderation; avoid large fluctuations in blood pressure. Nine, maintain psychological balance Nervousness, emotional excitement, sadness, and anger can activate sympathetic nerves such as increased levels of catecholamines, increased tachycardia, and increased peripheral vascular resistance, thereby increasing blood pressure. The following 8 methods are suggested to reduce the sympathetic nervous system's responsiveness and reduce blood pressure. If necessary, use psychotherapy combined with medication to relieve anxiety and mental stress. (1) Listen to music and relax. (2) Smile often and face pressure with a positive attitude. (3) When traveling, choose fields and villages away from the hustle and bustle of the city and get close to nature. (4) Slow down the pace of life and appropriate entertainment. (5) Know how to choose and open the knot. (6) Talk to your relatives and friends, and release the bad emotions in your heart. (7) Open-minded, cheerful and optimistic, tolerant in case of trouble, thinking from the perspective of the other side, usually can do some relaxation meditation exercises, breathing exercises, qigong, Tai Chi, etc. (8) Cultivate some hobbies, such as reading, flower cultivation and fishing.