Cheerleaders sprouted in the 19th-century American football and are now an indispensable part of every American game. The broadcast of the 1997 ESPN International Cheerleading Tournament, and the global release of the 2000 film Bring It On, have driven the global popularity of the 21st Century Cheerleaders.
Many people think of cheerleaders, the first impression in their minds is “healthy and confident American girl”, but what you may not know is that the cheerleaders initially recruited only male members, and they were all men with good academics and respect . It wasn’t until around 1920 that women began to emerge and become dominant in the sport. Developed to this day, the cheerleading team has become a pure female sport.
Cheerleading was originally a “pure man” sport
“H urrah! H urrah! Hurrah! Tiger! Ssst! Boom! Ahhh!” This is the first cheering slogan recorded by the first organized cheerleader. This cheering slogan is also called “Locomotive” , Meaning (cheerleader) cheers from slow to fast. The cheerleaders were originally an all-male cheering activity. In order to inspire their friends or loved players on the field, the male students spontaneously came up with cheering slogans and cheered them off the field.
In 1869, the first American football intercollegiate game was held between Princeton University and Rutgers University in New Jersey, and the game continued. By the 1880s, Princeton University had formed a club dedicated to cheering players on the field, and the club was all men. Since then, Thomas Peebles, a graduate of Princeton University, has brought Princeton’s “cheering tradition” to the University of Minnesota. In 1898, the University of Minnesota was in a state of continuous loss. A medical student named Johnny Campbell spontaneously organized a group of students to send cheers and encouragement to the school team. Because of this, Johnny is also considered the first cheerleader in history.
For a long time, the cheerleaders were a “pure man” activity. Some famous cheerleaders also included Franklin Roosevelt, Samuel Jackson, and Steve Martin. Nowadays, it may be difficult for us to imagine a cheering team composed of all men. In fact, this situation did not change until the 1920s. In 1923, the University of Minnesota for the first time allowed women to join the cheerleaders. In 1955, an article outlining the current state of the cheerleader described: “Now in larger schools, (cheerleaders) occasionally include boys and girls … but in smaller schools, boys usually go to sports to find themselves Position, the cheerleaders are completely girls. ”
Since then, women have basically dominated the sport, and cheerleaders have become more and more famous. By the 1970s, almost every school in the United States, from elementary school to college, had its own cheerleading team. The history of the cheerleaders is short, but the development of the cheerleaders is surprising.
Cheerleader self-cultivation: from scratch, from amateur to professional
In 1948, Lawrence Hedge Hochema, known as the “father of the cheerleaders,” opened the first summer cheerleader training class at Sam Houston State Normal College (now the state university), but there were only 52 Girls and one boy participated, the number increased to 350 the following year. With the popularity of cheerleader culture, the number of training classes has increased year by year, with a maximum of more than 20,000.
Then, He Kaima designed the cheerleader jumping action “He Kaima Jump” and introduced cheerleaders and colored balls into the cheerleader sport. In 1961, He Kaima established the American Cheerleading Association (NCA) to promote the exchange and learning of cheerleading teams across the United States. Later, he also established the cheerleading supplies company and founded the cheerleading magazine “Megaphone”. It can be said that He Kaima has promoted the cheerleader industry in the United States with his personal strength.
In the 1960s, the cheerleading team has become one of the major sports events in American high schools and universities. In 1978, the CBS broadcasted the University Cheerleading Championship for the first time, which led to the trend of the American Athletic Cheerleaders. During the same period, the professional cheerleading team in the professional game gradually came into people’s attention. The 1980s can be said to be the germination period of the modern cheerleading team. Many difficult stunts and gymnastic skills are integrated into the basic training of the cheerleading team. You know, the competitive cheering team ’s scoring standards include, but are not limited to, the cheering team members. Their choreography, formation, stunts, and tower stacks are all extra points. According to the Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine, cheerleading has two purposes-to cheer other athletes on the sidelines, and to be a “skilled athlete”.
While the US cheerleading industry is booming, professional cheerleaders and competitive cheerleaders have also emerged in Germany, Britain, Australia, Brazil and other countries. Germany is the first country in Europe to promote cheerleading; the British Cheerleading Association is officially organized; Australia not only recognizes cheerleading as a “gymnastics exercise” that combines art, rhythm and acrobatics, but also introduces it into the Australian National Rugby Professional cheerleaders; and Brazil’s most famous cheerleader is their “football baby”, which is a beautiful landscape in the Brazilian sports world.
Behind the glorious beauty: strict training and production line management
The cheerleading performance is pleasing and exciting, but it is not easy to become a cheerleader.
When selecting a cheerleader in the school, the school will first work with the coach to develop the selection criteria for the cheerleader. After becoming a cheerleader, students must participate in training on time, work hard and cooperate with other players; keep their clothing, including clothes, shoes, decorations, flower balls, etc., without training without complete equipment; for the players on the field When refueling, you must be full of energy and you must not act without permission; you cannot use your mobile phone during training and playing …
However, these standards have become a big witch when selecting professional cheerleaders.
The selection of professional cheerleaders is more stringent. Take the NBA cheerleader selection criteria as an example. First, candidates cannot engage in improper industries, and those who have previously engaged in the election cannot participate in the selection. Second, candidates must have a solid foundation in dancing. Finally, the cheerleaders ’work and other tasks There can be no conflict, only one of them. After the selection is passed, the cheerleaders need to focus on developing their own coordination and communication skills. If you cannot integrate into this group or even conflict with other people, you may be fired by the team in the name of “mishandling interpersonal relationships.” Out of the team. The most important point is that cheerleaders cannot have too much personal contact with the stars. If the players and the stars have a close relationship, the team will punish both parties and the players will generally be retired.
The selection criteria of the US cheerleaders are similar to those of North Korea. In 2005, North Korea sent a cheerleading team to participate in the Asian Track and Field Championships in Incheon. According to the “New Yorker”, the selection criteria of the North Korean cheerleaders are very strict. They are in their early teens to their twenties, and they are at least about 165 centimeters in height and 160 centimeters are not eligible for election. Your family background is also important.
The cheerleading team is very hard in training and work, however, the salary of the players is very small. In addition, the cheerleading team is an industry with a very high elimination rate, and the players’ careers are only about 3-5 years. During the tenure, the team will repeatedly review these cheerleaders. Once their physical fitness fails to meet the standards, they will be warned or fired. Therefore, the cheerleading team is also a stressful profession.
One of the most dangerous school recreational sports?
For some people, cheerleading seems to be a lighthearted activity, but according to the annual statistics released by the National Center for Disastrous Sports Injury Research in 2009, the probability of fatal injuries caused by cheerleading is among the top three in the world.
If the cheerleaders are not properly trained, they are likely to cause serious injuries to themselves and others during practice or official matches. On March 5, 2006, during a basketball game between Southern Illinois University and Bradley University, the cheerleader made a mistake and Christie fell from the stacked tower, and the fall caused “national attention” Because, even if Christie was carried on a stretcher, he could not persist. Fortunately, she was not allowed to stay, and after a period of conditioning, she eventually recovered fully.
After the accident, some schools banned cheerleaders from stacking more than two people. The American Cheerleading Coach Association has also formulated new regulations requiring cheering teams to have bedding materials below when performing difficult acrobatic moves. Some tumbling and throwing actions can only be performed during the halftime break. Prohibited.
Of the 2.9 million female high school athletes in the United States, only 3% are cheerleaders, but 65% of the female high school athletes who have suffered catastrophic injuries are cheerleaders. The National University Sports Association in the United States does not recognize cheerleaders as a university sport, so there is no official exact data on the injuries of college cheerleaders. However, according to the annual statistics of athletes injured by universities, about 67% of women The athlete’s injury was caused by a cheerleading accident.
Data from the National Disaster Sports Injury Research Center also shows that cheerleading is definitely one of the most dangerous recreational activities in schools as a competitive sport. The most common cheerleader-related injury is a concussion, and 96% of cheerleaders who are injured by a concussion are accidents while performing stunts. Other minor injuries include ankle sprains, wrist sprains, back injuries, head injuries, arm fractures, elbow injuries, knee injuries, nose fractures, and clavicle fractures. Serious injuries include cervical spine fractures, vertebral fractures, and death, and sometimes also will happen.