Moon first non-crime
Throughout history, humans have been fascinated by the moon suspended in the sky, whether it is myth or poetry, there is always the moon’s shadow. In ancient times, people have noticed that there seems to be a close connection between the moon and the earth. For example, the moon can cause the tide to rise and fall. Later, scientists used gravity to explain why the moon can cause tidal changes on Earth.
The tide is formed by the gravitational pull of the moon and the sun on the earth. Because the gravitational pull of the sun basically does not change much, the moon rotates around the earth. At different angles, its gravity will have different influences on the earth. On the first and fifteenth day of the first lunar calendar, the tidal forces of the sun and the moon are superimposed. At this time, the maximum tidal difference is called the tide. When the moon is in the upper or lower chord position, the sun and the moon are at 90 ° from the earth. The sun’s force cancels out some of the moon’s forces, and the combined forces are small. The tide at this time is called the tide. Therefore, the size of the tide will change with the relative positions of the moon, the sun, and the earth.
This raises another question: if tidal forces can have such a large impact on water bodies, can it also have the same impact on the ground, such as triggering earthquakes or volcanic eruptions?
Ancient Roman naturalist Gaius Pliny believed that the moon’s movements were responsible for volcanic eruptions and earthquakes on Earth. But until the 1980s, geophysicists did not find any tangible evidence of the connection between the two, and Old Pliny’s views gradually withdrew from the arena of history.
Nowadays, a U.S. Geological Survey seismologist Susan Howe has studied the time of strong earthquakes and the change of moon phases. The answer to the question of whether the moon ’s gravity can trigger earthquakes and volcanoes is no. . Most experts agree with this view that the gravity of the moon is not the main cause of Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. In fact, in the solar system, volcanic eruptions caused by tidal forces are not unusual. For example, the volcanic activity on Io is affected by the gravitational influence of Jupiter and other satellites. However, for the earth, the tidal force caused by the moon and the sun can change water movement, but it is not strong enough to cause a volcanic eruption. It is estimated that the tidal force needs to be increased by three times to trigger a volcanic eruption on the earth.
Although lunar gravity is not enough to trigger a volcanic eruption, scientists have recently discovered that lunar gravity does have an effect on it, and with this connection, it may be possible to predict the volcanic eruption time.
Volcano suddenly erupted
most active volcano in the plate boundary, before the outbreak of magma change will provide some clues, such as the magma surface deformation, originally due to high temperature and pressure to dissolve in the magma of a large number of gases such as sulfur dioxide, etc. As the magma rises gradually, The pressure decreases and escapes, and the temperature brought by the magma raises the ground temperature and water temperature.
However, not all volcanic eruptions involve easily detectable magma changes. One type of volcanic eruption is called a “steam eruption”. The eruption mechanism is the contact of surface water or groundwater with magma, which is converted into superheated and high-pressure steam without warning. The ground sprayed out thinly. The volcanic eruption has only accounted for 5% of the 18,000 records of volcanic eruption since the 20th century, but this volcanic eruption has virtually enhanced its lethality because it has no warning and is unpredictable.
Mount Mitake is one of them, on Honshu Island in Japan. In 2014, Mount Mitake suddenly erupted, killing 63 people. Japan is one of the regions with the most frequent volcanic activity in the world, and this eruption is the largest death toll caused by a volcanic eruption in Japan since 1926. Another volcanic eruption of the same type occurred on September 25, 2007, in Ruapehu, the largest and most active volcano in New Zealand. The eruption lasted 7 minutes, triggering two small debris flows. The eruption rushed down and fell as far as two kilometers away from the crater lake, destroying a nearby camping site and injuring one person. Although there are few volcanic eruption volcanoes, its impact cannot be ignored, so geophysicists began to study such volcanoes, trying to find some clues that can help predict the eruption.
Warning to the moon
NASA geophysicist at Mount Ruapehu in New Zealand as the goal, with a full 12 years, recorded Ruapehu and nearby ground shaking data. Under normal circumstances, there is no special connection between the ground vibration and the periodic change of the moon’s gravity. There seems to be no connection between the two, but there have been special cases in the months before the outbreak-the data of the ground vibration and the change of the moon’s gravity Convergence.
They were excited about it, and in theory, scientists might be able to predict vapor volcanic eruptions based on this characteristic. Inside the steam volcano, hundreds of thousands of tons of steam are trapped underneath. Maybe the influence of the moon’s gravity on them is not large, but when they gather together, this huge volume is enough to magnify the small impact to an observable level. The range is like you can’t observe the tide change from the water in a bathtub, but you can see it directly in the river, lake, and sea.
In addition to Mount Ruapehu, other scientists have studied Stromboli, Sicily, Italy, the most active volcano in Europe. For centuries, it erupted every few minutes. Scientists recorded the volcanic activity data for 17 months from 2010 to 2011, and found that the number of volcanic eruptions increases every 14 days every 14 days, which is consistent with tidal changes. The activity of Mount Etna near Sicily is also closely related to the change of lunar gravity.
In order to further verify the relationship between volcanoes and lunar gravity, scientists need to repeat the same experiments on volcanoes other than Mount Ruapehu. If the same results can be obtained repeatedly, we can use the moon to warn of volcanic eruptions. Not only that, some scientists speculate that since lunar gravity can predict volcanoes that are active on the edge of the plate, it can also have the same effect on earthquakes that are also active on the edge of the plate.
The moon may open a new door for the prediction of earthquakes and volcanic activity.
Moon first non-crime