How difficult is it to eliminate domestic violence?

​​”If it happens, remember to call the police as soon as possible.” Regrettably, many European and Asian countries and many Asian countries People still choose to remain silent after being subjected to domestic violence. In many countries with the “Anti-Domestic Violence Law”, people are thinking about why domestic violence is difficult to eliminate? In Germany, “domestic violence is by no means a family dispute” is a consensus, but the handling of it is still passive; in South Korea, some people subconsciously believe that “domestic violence is an internal contradiction within the family”, which has led domestic violence members to repeatedly Resist the law. How difficult is it to eliminate domestic violence? This is indeed a global issue.

Germany: “The perpetrator must leave!”

“This is a sobering number!” According to the German “German Süddeutsche”, the German Federal Ministry of Family, Elderly, Women and Adolescents released data on the 25th “International Day for the Elimination of Domestic Violence”, and the results showed that last year Germany had more than 11.4 Ten thousand women became victims of domestic violence, accounting for 81% of the total number of victims of domestic violence. Given that many people do not report crimes, the true crime figures will be even higher. Even more alarming is that a total of 122 women were killed by partners or former partners in Germany last year. According to Florian Grokafell, an expert on marriage, family and criminal law at the Free University of Berlin, Germany, “Behind the rising number of domestic violence reports, it is also the rising awareness of German women against violence.” He told the Global Times reporter that according to German law, the concept of domestic violence includes not only physical harm such as beating, but also insults, threats, intimidation, deprivation of liberty, mental abuse, sexual abuse, rape, killing or attempt Killing, etc. “The domestic violence is by no means a family dispute, but a criminal offence. The location of the domestic violence is not limited to the home, but also in any place, including public places. Victims of the domestic violence can call the police, neighbors and witnesses. You can also call the police. ”

Grucarver said the turning point in German anti-domestic violence was the Prevention of Violence Act, which came into force in 2002. Previously, the main measure for protecting female domestic violence victims in Germany was to place them in women’s shelters, which was a passive response. The new anti-domestic violence law establishes an important principle: “The perpetrator must leave!” Only then can victims gain initiative. Christian Police, a senior police officer at the Berlin Police Department, told the Global Times reporter that when the police received a report from a victim or other witness and confirmed that domestic violence had occurred, they could detain the suspect for up to 14 days according to the seriousness of the situation and bar him from entering and The victim lived in a common residence and handed in the keys. Victims can get a police certificate for the use of the property alone, and the police will let the victim see a doctor as soon as possible. Victims can also apply to the family court for a protection decision. The family court will, in accordance with the victim’s statement and relevant regulations, require the criminal suspect to leave the common residence for a long time or forever, and prohibit contact with the victim and children. If a family court decision is violated, the criminal suspect will be prosecuted under criminal law and may be sentenced to imprisonment or a fine of less than one year.

Although shelters are considered “passive” by some scholars, many shelters are overcrowded in Germany. A reporter from the Global Times visited a women’s shelter in Berlin. It looked like an apartment building without a sign. The shelter is open 24 hours, but the address is not disclosed. There are also some immigrant women in the shelter, and some live with their children. A victim named Beate said that the staff in the shelter were professional and made her feel warm like her family and also made her aware that she could be protected by law. According to the head of the shelter, Claudia Batman, the first women’s shelter in the Federal Republic of Germany was established in 1976. At that time, women leaving their husbands were still regarded as “a very shameful thing.” Today, there are about 400 women’s shelters across Germany, and male asylum seekers have appeared in some major cities. These shelters are always full and many victims of domestic violence want to come in and have no beds yet. To this end, the German government plans to raise hundreds of millions of euros over the next four years to expand shelters, especially in rural areas.

Beauty Experts: Batterers are usually charming when they first fall in love

From “sleeping in bed with the enemy” to “Madia’s Family Reunion”, this is a list of a recent research site on domestic violence movies in the United States, with a long list of 20-30. The US “National Domestic Violence Hotline” network is a government-funded non-profit organization that released data showing that in the United States, an average of 24 people become victims of domestic violence every minute. Nearly a quarter of women and 1 in 7 men in the United States have suffered severe domestic violence. In addition to physical injuries, nearly half of men and women in the United States have experienced psychological attacks by intimate partners.

In the United States, women are the main victims of domestic violence, with an average of 1 in 3 women being victims of domestic violence. The age range of domestic violence experienced by American women is concentrated between the ages of 18 and 34. According to statistics from the American Institute of Domestic Violence, 85% of the victims of domestic violence in the United States are women, 5.3 million women are abused every year, and more than a thousand women are killed by their spouses, cohabitants or boyfriends. In April 2018, in a survey report released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 27.3% of American women experienced at least one physical, sexual, or harassment from an intimate partner in their lives.

According to WHO data in 2017, one-third of women worldwide have experienced physical or sexual violence, but fewer than 10% of alarms have been reported. In the United States, many domestic violence were reported to neighbors. A reporter from the Global Times in the United States last month called “911” decisively when he heard an upstairs neighbor’s quarrel and hands-on.

Regarding why domestic violence is difficult to eliminate or why the victims did not choose to end such a “battered” relationship, experts from the US “National Domestic Violence Hotline” network concluded that the victims are worried about the revenge of the perpetrators and are helpless, especially economically Independent, but no other place to live; fear of being abandoned or revealing privacy by the other party, especially for homosexuals, bisexuals, etc .; fear of family ugliness, some people think that “the abuse is because you have the wrong first”, there are Some also fantasize about maintaining a family, some are affected by culture or religion, and are afraid of shaming their family; some immigrants choose to be silent due to language barriers or immigration status. In the United States, there have been cases of Chinese males experiencing domestic violence. His white American wife even beat him with a knife and threatened him not to get a green card.

Experts from the National Domestic Hotline in the United States remind the public to look at the true faces of the perpetrators: “The abusers are usually very attractive, especially at the beginning of a relationship. Victims may want their partner to return to the original The victim may just want the other person to stop the violence, rather than want the relationship to end completely. “The website hotline also provides 24×7 psychological intervention services.

Multi-country reflection: why there is an anti-domestic violence law, why the case did not fall but Russia ’s Business Consulting Daily recently released a set of figures: 87,000 women were killed worldwide in 2018, of which 58% were killed by partners or family members Hands. Domestic violence is an important cause of death and disability among women of childbearing age. Domestic violence has increased in Russia. In 2018, 12,516 Russian women were beaten by their husbands. In the first nine months of this year, 15,000 domestic violence against women occurred in Russia. The perpetrators can be detained for 10 to 15 days or compulsory correctional labor for 60 to 120 hours and fined 5,000 to 30,000 rubles. Only one in seven Russian women who experience domestic violence will report to the police. In response, Anna Levina, director of the Russian Center for “No Violence,” believes that on the one hand they do not believe that the police can solve the problem of domestic violence, On the one hand, women who have children always care about their children after being subjected to domestic violence. As a result of constant accommodation, domestic violence is getting worse.

In February 2017, Russia adopted the Amendment to the Domestic Violence Law. The amendment has sparked controversy in Russia by removing legal responsibility for “light domestic violence”. According to the Russian Interfax news agency reported on the 26th, some Russians believe that a new and more severe domestic violence bill should be promulgated as soon as possible. Earlier, the Russian Ministry of Justice has emphasized that the Russian Criminal Law and Administrative Law also contain content to protect life and personal health.

The Russian Ministry of Justice also countered the relevant practices of the European Court of Human Rights. The European Court of Human Rights recently accepted a lawsuit against four victims of domestic violence, including Russian citizen Margarita Grachova. In December 2017, Grachova’s husband Dmitry suspected that she was having an affair, and brutally smashed her fingers, and then cut her hands with an ax. Dmitri surrendered after taking Grachova to the doctor. In November 2018, Dmitry was sentenced to 14 years in prison by the Russian court for serious personal injury. In response to this case, the European Court of Human Rights raised various questions about Russia, such as “Is there a systemic problem that violates women’s rights?” In response, the Russian Ministry of Justice stated that this was a “misinterpretation” of Russia.

The news that Mongolian female journalist Odygzyle suffered severe domestic violence has recently become a hot topic in the local area. Odgeril has been married for five years and has often been beaten by her husband, even threatening to kill her several times. After receiving the alarm, the police took her safety into consideration, according to the relevant provisions of the “Anti-Domestic Violence Act” passed in 2017, specially arranged for her temporary protection of the residence, and provided one-stop services including medical and psychological assistance. service. According to data released by the official website of the Mongolian Central Procuratorate, the province handled 250 cases of domestic violence in the first 10 months of this year, and the perpetrators were sentenced to 7 to 30 days of detention or 10 to 50 hours of forced learning.

Despite the Anti-Domestic Violence Act, cases of domestic violence in Mongolia have not decreased significantly. According to the statistics of the Mongolian Police General Bureau, a total of 1070 domestic violence cases occurred in Mongolia in 2018, 997 people were injured, 92% were women and 6% were children. Five of the victims died and 675 were injured. and

The number of domestic violence cases in the first quarter of 2019 was 383 and killed two people. The Mongolian Medical Journal Alliance website reports that studies have shown that 67% of domestic violence in Mongolia is caused by drunkenness, as well as economic and educational reasons. “Global Times” reporter recently watched a video program on the topic of domestic violence on the Mongolian “zarig” website. One of them, a 30-year-old female from the post-Hangai province, worked in Ulaanbaatar and married in 2010. As a result, during her first pregnancy, she was beaten drunk by her husband, resulting in miscarriage. Now she is the mother of two children and still lives a nightmare. She reported to the police several times, the worst being her husband being detained for 14 days. Many sympathizers believe that the punishment for her husband is still too limited.

At present, many people in Mongolia still lack the understanding of the “Anti-Domestic Violence Law” and did not expect to report to the police after being subjected to domestic violence. The Mongolian police believe that failure to report to the police is actually a pampering of the perpetrators. To prevent domestic violence, the Mongolian Police General Directorate also cooperates with UNICEF in organizing domestic violence prevention training activities.

South Korea: “Domestic violence is an internal contradiction”?

In South Korea, people think of actress Cui Zhenci when she talks about victims of domestic violence. In 2004, Cui Zhen’s bruised and swollen picture on her husband’s domestic violence was released by the media. At the time of the divorce, Cui Zhenzheng received custody of his children. It is worth mentioning that, despite getting rid of domestic violence, Cui Zhen was sued and claimed by a number of advertising agencies, citing that “the endorsement contract clearly stipulates that the endorser must ensure a healthy and positive positive image, and Cui Jiachou exposed, Damaged product image. ” This may reflect the attitude of Korean society at that time to the problem of domestic violence, that is, “domestic violence is also domestic ugly” and should not be exposed to the public. In October 2008, Cui really committed suicide. Korean media analyzed that “domestic violence and cyber violence” were the main reasons leading to her mental breakdown and suicide.

In fact, the South Korean government enacted the Domestic Violence Exception Law as early as 1997, but domestic violence cases in South Korean society have continued to increase. The number of domestic violence reported by telephone was 226,600 in 2015, 264,600 in 2016, and 279,100 in 2017. In the Korean national violence cases, more than 80% of the perpetrators were men. Some South Korean experts have analyzed that whether domestic violence victims or grass-roots law enforcement agencies have a strong sense of “domestic violence is a contradiction within the family, it should be resolved internally first in accordance with the principle of family harmony”, and the judicial organs are conducting trials. Domestic violence cases follow the principle of “not punishing the perpetrators against the will of the victim”, which leads to untimely intervention by the judicial department or insufficient legal punishment, so that domestic violence can usually escape legal sanctions, resulting in an increase in domestic violence. Less.

The representative of the Korean women’s protection agency “Korea Women’s Telecommunications”, Gao Meijing, said that the actual domestic violence cases in Korean society are much higher than the official statistics. Many victims are afraid to call the police. It’s not professional enough. If you criticize and educate the perpetrators, let them go for two or three hours. Gao Meijing believes that the disadvantage of the “Special Domestic Violence Law” is to focus on “maintaining family harmony and stability, rather than protecting the personal safety and human rights of victims”, which greatly reduces the effectiveness of the bill.

South Korean lawmaker Park Wan-joon said recently that the punishment is too light and the cost of illegality is too low, which is why domestic violence has repeatedly resisted the law and violated the red line of the law. For example, even if they violated a court ban and approached victims of domestic violence, they were mostly punished with only 5 million won. Park Wan-hyun believes that Congress should introduce relevant measures as soon as possible to improve the “Special Law on Domestic Violence,” and strengthen the punishment of domestic violence criminals.

In July of this year, South Korean lawmaker Song Xiqing proposed to amend the Domestic Violence Exception Law, the main content of which is to delete the principle of “do not violate the will of the victim to punish the perpetrator”. Song Xiqing expressed the hope that the amendment to the “Special Domestic Violence Law” will make everyone realize that domestic violence is a clear criminal act, and it cannot be covered up for any reason to allow criminals to escape the law net, so as to achieve the elimination of domestic violence. The purpose of ill health.