Exoplanet weather broadcast

  Dear readers, welcome to the weather report of exoplanets. For more than a decade, scientists have discovered thousands of exoplanets. They are separated from the earth by tens or even hundreds of thousands of light years. The weather is also very different from the weather on the earth. Here we will report a few exoplanets Weather.
  Exoplanet weather observation
  method because the exoplanets far from Earth, observation of weather changes on the planet does not work, current technology is not enough to support a human to launch the spacecraft landed exoplanets intuitive photo shoot, so extrasolar planets Weather scientists, how do scientists do it?
  Stars that glow are obviously easier to find than small, dim planets. With the help of stars, scientists can find some planets orbiting the stars. These planets revolve around the stars, and at the same time they will give the stars a pulling force. The stars will sway slightly. This tiny sway may be observed, and the planets that cause them to sway may be found.
  Swinging stars was a method used by scientists to find exoplanets, but now it is more effective to use another method, the transit method. When a planet passes in front of its parent star, in our field of vision, the planet is on the same straight line as the parent star, and we can observe that the visual brightness of the star has decreased, similar to the eclipse, and the degree of darkening Depends on the size of the planet relative to the star. With the transit method, scientists can determine the density of a planet and thus understand its physical structure. The transit method can also help study the planetary atmosphere. Stellar light passes through the planet’s atmosphere, some are absorbed, some are reflected, and some are refracted. By analyzing the star spectrum, scientists can determine the composition of the planet’s atmosphere.
  Observing the weather of a planet requires temperature and pressure. Scientists calculate the temperature of the planet based on the temperature of the parent star and the distance between the planet and the star, and determine the pressure of the planet based on the thickness of the planet’s atmosphere. Generally, the thicker the planet ’s atmosphere, the higher the planet ’s pressure.
  Now that you know how scientists are observing the weather of exoplanets, let ’s continue to report the weather of several newly discovered planets.
  Temperature broadcast
  two gas giant planets are enduring the torment of high temperature.
  A planet named HD 80606b, located 190 light-years from Earth, is located in Ursa Major and has a high temperature throughout the year. Its orbit is similar to that of Comet Halley’s orbit around the sun. The farthest point from the parent star is almost the same as the earth-sun distance, about 131 million kilometers, and the nearest point is only 4.5 million kilometers away from the parent star. This special orbit makes every 111 days, when the planet reaches the closest parent star, there will be an extreme weather-within 6 hours, the temperature soared from 530 ℃ to 1230 ℃, the temperature difference was 700 ℃, prime Xinjiang, known as “wearing the skin early, wearing yarn at noon, and eating watermelons around the stove,” is almost a witch in front of it. After 6 hours, the planet began to move away from the orbit, and the temperature dropped.
  Another gas giant is KELT-9b, 620 light years from Earth. This is a hot Jupiter. Hot Jupiter refers to a gas giant planet with a mass close to or greater than Jupiter, and the distance from its parent star is about more than 2 million to 70 million kilometers. Unlike HD 80606b, KELT-9b’s orbit is circular. Its revolution period and rotation period are the same. Therefore, one side always faces the parent star and is a “yin and yang face” planet. KELT-9b’s parent star is twice as hot as the sun. It is so close to the parent star that its temperature will not be low. The temperature of the side facing the parent star is about 4316 ° C, which is only 1200 ° C lower than the temperature of the sun. Once someone approached it, it was probably an “acquaintance” and even evaporated. And because there is a temperature difference between the yin and yang sides, and wind is easy to form, scientists on earth can estimate the wind speed on this planet from the temperature difference.
  When these two gas giant planets were suffering from high temperatures, an earth-like planet was ice and snow. It is 13,000 light-years away from the earth and is named OGLE-2016-BLG-1195Lb. Its mass is almost the same as the earth. The distance from the parent star is 174 million kilometers, and the distance from the earth to the sun is not much different. However, its parent star has a mass of only 7.8% of the mass of the sun, and scientists suspect that the star may be a brown dwarf. The brown dwarf is very dim, which makes it impossible for OGLE-2016-BLG-1195Lb orbiting it to get enough light and heat, and it is at a low temperature all year round, and the temperature is about -240 ° C.
  Compared to these exoplanets, Earth’s temperature is much more pleasant. In human history, the highest temperature on Earth occurred in Death Valley, California, USA, on July 10, 1913, at a temperature of 56.7 ° C. The lowest temperature was at the East Station in Antarctica. On July 21, 1983, the temperature was -89.2 ° C.
  Next, we will report rainfall on several planets.
  Rainfall broadcast
  history of mankind, the record for the most rainfall in one hour within the Earth June 22, 1947, Missouri, rainfall 305 mm. The most severe hail record was in the Gobarganj region of Bangladesh on April 14, 1986, producing the world’s heaviest hail record, weighing 1.02 kilograms.
  But looking at exoplanets, these two records may not be extreme. OGLE-TR-56b, located in Sagittarius, is 4900 light years from Earth and has a revolution period of 29 hours, which means that on this planet, there are only 29 hours a year. It is not the water that falls here, but the iron. The planet’s atmospheric temperature reaches 1700 ° C. The composition of the cloud is not water vapor but iron atoms. Sometimes, liquid iron will drip down and form iron rain. If the measurement of rainfall on the earth is called precipitation, it should be called iron reduction on OGLE-TR-56b.
  Exoplanets are not only iron-reducing, but also gem-reducing. Beyond 1040 light years, there is a glittering planet, HAT-P-7b. The planet’s atmosphere is rich in alumina, which is the main component of rubies and sapphires. HAT-P-7b is also a member of Hot Jupiter. The revolution cycle is the same as the rotation cycle. One side always faces the parent star, and it is also a “yin-yang face”. The temperature facing the parent star was as high as 2500 ° C, and the other side was 1900 ° C. The temperature difference of 600 ° C caused a gale on the planet. In addition, on the positive side, alumina cannot condense because the temperature is too high. Only on the negative side, alumina can condense into ruby ​​or sapphire. Therefore, the spectacle of gem rain can be seen only on the negative side.
  The disaster weather report is next.
  Severe Weather Broadcast
  At a distance of 63 light years from Earth, there is a gas giant planet called HD 189733b. Like the Earth, it is also blue. From the perspective of space, the reason why the earth is blue is because the earth is actually a “water polo”. The ocean area accounts for about 71% of the earth’s surface area. Due to the scattering of seawater, the earth looks blue. But the blue color of HD 189733b is not conferred by sea water, but because of the large number of silicate particles in its atmosphere, which is the main component of glass and can scatter blue light.
  In addition, the wind speed on this planet is about 8600 km / h, and the strongest wind record on the planet occurred on April 10, 1996 on the island of Barrow, Australia, with a wind speed of 407.5 km / h. In HD 189733b, strong winds wrapped in silicate particles raged on the planet, creating a severe glass rain storm.
  The other planet is suffering from thunderstorms. It is HAT-P-11b, 122 light years from Earth. In 2009, a mysterious radio signal from outer space was received on Earth, and people were so excited that finding alien life seemed just around the corner. However, after analysis, scientists found that these radio signals did not come from aliens, but were caused by the intense thunderstorm of HAT-P-11b. On this planet, the atmosphere continues to change, creating clouds of different sizes that cover the entire planet’s surface, making it easy to form large thunderstorms.
  On Earth, Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela, has the strongest and most frequent thunderstorm on the planet. Here, lightning strikes between 140 and 160 nights per year, and up to 280 times per hour. However, thunderstorms on HAT-P-11b are a million times stronger than those on Earth, and they are spread over the entire planet. If you are on this planet, you can always be “thundered”.
  The weather of exoplanets is so bad. In comparison, the weather on the earth is so friendly to life. Even if there are typhoons and heavy rains, they are much more lovely than those of exoplanets that are overwhelmed by high temperatures and storms. Please be nice to your earth!
  The above is the exoplanet weather report for this issue.