Catastrophic ecological damage under the Amazon fire

  In August this year, the Amazon rain forest in Brazil caught fire in many places. The fire lasted for several days and attracted worldwide attention. Regardless of the number, duration, or range of fires, this fire far surpassed previous rain forest fires. Due to drought and human activity, the average number of fires in the Amazon rainforest can reach tens of thousands of times per year, but this time it is no small matter. It is more destructive than people think. The fire not only threatened local residents to lose their homes, but also disrupted the balance of the Amazon rainforest ecosystem, and caused a catastrophic blow to local flora and fauna.
  Ohio State University ecologist Mazeika Sullivan said during a field trip in the Amazon region: “Many animals that inhabit tropical rain forests are not good at responding to fires. This fire will have a huge impact on multiple populations of different animals, especially Put more pressure on endangered species. “Not all animals can escape in time before a fire. As the rainforest is burned on a large scale, the birds inhabiting the nests will have nowhere to go, other animals may be suffocated in the smoke and suffocate, or directly buried in the sea of ​​fire.
  In the long run, even those agile animals successfully escaped the fire will be affected by “starvation” due to the dispersion and extinction of food, such as the jaguar is facing this threat. According to a report by the World Wide Fund for Nature, the jaguar lost most of its habitat and has severely affected their food supply. Prior to this, the survival status of the jaguar in the Amazon region was not optimistic. There were not a few hunted by ranchers because of predation of cattle and sheep. The expansion of agricultural land also reduced the scope of their habitats.
  In addition to jaguar land animals, aquatic animals in the Amazon rainforest are also at risk. When trees burn, ash will enter the water body along with other sediments, causing water pollution. Fire not only raises the temperature of river water, but also changes the chemical composition of the water and increases its erosivity. Most fish in the water cannot cope with such environmental changes. At the same time, when algae in the water die and decompose, it will reduce the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water and damage the water’s ability to contain oxygen, which is very deadly to aquatic animals. William Magnuson, a senior researcher at the Brazilian National Amazon Institute, said: “In the Amazon region, the number of fish in just a few hundred square kilometers can exceed the number of fish in Australia. But after the fire, you have I can’t see so much. “The
  same goes for amphibians. They don’t move fast, the permeable skin is extremely sensitive to changes in the surrounding environment, and air and water pollution will have a great impact on them. At the same time, they are also one of the prey of large animals, and once the number drops sharply, it is likely to endanger the animals at the upper end of the food chain. Mazeika Sullivan warned: “This change will bring long-term ripple effects to the rainforest, which will have a huge impact on the wider ecosystem, eventually changing the original animal species in the rainforest.”
  Until then, deforestation has been a continuous existence of rainforest On the issue, Brazilian President Jayir Bolsonaro advocates tapping the economic potential of the Amazon rainforest and promoting the country’s economic development. The government relaxed environmental regulations and opened large areas of forests to mining and agriculture. As a result, the deforestation in July this year was 278% higher than the same period last year, and forest arson crimes were repeatedly banned. The fire was undoubtedly fueling the Amazon rain forest fire. The fire damaged the diversified vegetation of the Amazon rainforest and gradually transformed some rainforests into a tropical grassland landscape. Countless trees were burned, destroying the foundation of the entire rainforest ecological chain and forcing most of the surviving animals to leave. The outflow of animals will also have a negative impact on the life cycle of the plants. About 80% of the trees in the Amazon rain forest rely on animals to propagate seeds for regeneration, but fires disperse and die a large number of animals, depriving these trees of their ability to reproduce. The forest after burning, even if it grows again, is only a lush “empty forest”. The living creatures that depend on it no longer exist, and the entire ecosystem is almost dead.
  According to incomplete statistics, the Amazon rainforest area is home to 16,000 species of trees, 2.5 million species of insects, more than 2,000 species of birds and mammals. In addition, there are still a large number of areas in the rainforest that have not been involved, and the actual number of species far exceeds these figures. We do n’t know how many animals and plants were destroyed by this fire, but it is certain that the recovery speed of the rainforest after the fire is slow, and its negative effects will gradually spread to the entire South America and even the entire earth. Consequences to bear.