The history of smuggling in a broad sense has a long history. Since the borders and inspections, there have been acts of smuggling. The ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle once took refuge in the Greek city-states by means of smuggling. The two sorghums of the Tang Dynasty in China – Xuan Zang and Jian Zhen’s trip to the west and east, actually The color of “smuggling”. During the “Edo Locks” period in Japan, the “locked country order” at that time prohibited Japanese from going abroad. Once they went abroad, they were not allowed to return to China, or they were executed. Even so, many people have become stowaways for various reasons. At the beginning of the 17th century, a group of Japanese who drifted to the Russian Kamchatka peninsula, only one of them was spared, but they failed to return to China for the rest of their lives.
The smuggling in the modern sense originated after the rise of capitalism. Due to the demand for labor, some countries have begun to open up the labor market on a large scale, giving birth to illegal immigrants and illegal immigrants. Such as the large-scale phenomenon of Chinese labor in the 19th century. From 1807 to 1925, about 3 million Chinese workers were sold to the rest of the world under the organization of snake heads in Europe and the United States. In the long process of trafficking, poor transport conditions have caused many people to die.
Storms, waves, pirates, scurvy, shipwrecks, guilts of stowaways (especially the battle for water after encountering an accident), and the actions of ship owners and crews who are “destroyed” in the event of official inspections by various countries, will give The helpless “boat people” (the euphemistic name for smugglers at sea) bring disaster. In the 19th century, the representative of the French writer Merimee “Damango” was recognized as a masterpiece accusing the slave trade, but few people noticed that this is actually a work that reflects the suffering of the boat people. Since the British banned the slave trade since 1807, France, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and other countries have followed suit. Since then, until 1859 (the last slave ship arrived on the coast of Mobile, Alabama, USA), black slaves sold.
It is organized in the form of “smuggling”, and the fate of these “special smugglers” is worse than the average boat people. The British archives show that the British West African fleet, which was responsible for simulating the smuggling ship, captured more than 1,600 smugglers between 1807 and 1860, and rescued more than 150,000 boat people. The number of special boat people who died in the waves was countless. In the Damango, the French illegal slave ship was rescued by the British Navy after a series of disasters such as riots, shipwrecks and boat people killing each other.
“promoting” the Jewish smuggling case in Israel In the 1930s, European Jews were massacred by Nazi Germany, and many were forced to emigrate to Palestine where their ancestors lived. But the move was opposed by the Arabs who had settled here. To this end, the British colonial authorities announced in 1939 the number of immigrants who restricted Jews from entering Palestine. More than the specified number of immigrants were illegal immigrants and forced to be deported to Palestine. In order to guard against the Jewish smuggling, the British dispatched warships and planes to patrol the Palestinian coastline all day long, and immediately arrested Jews who had sneaked ashore. However, the European continent is still deteriorating and returning to Palestine to become the Jewish final road to self-help. Many smugglers can’t help but hang on to the ship on long-distance bumps. Because there is no cure, they can only resign. Jews who are incapable of passing the British blockade often choose to switch to a smuggling smuggling. If they can’t escape the eyes of the British, they will sneak into the boat. The British Navy can’t tell whether the ship is sinking or an accident, only for the shipwreck.
The people on the rescue were rescued, and many illegal immigrants set foot on the land of Palestine in this way. For a time, many shipwrecks in the Mediterranean have occurred, so it is not uncommon for people killed. In this context, a large-scale tragedy occurred. On December 16, 1941, a refugee ship “Strumma” (pictured right) carried 769 Jewish refugees from Romania to Palestine. At that time, the ship was heavily overloaded, and the stowaways had to throw away most of the luggage to barely squeeze into the cabin. Originally they thought that they could reach their destination in a few days, and they couldn’t bear it. However, the engine of the vessel was faulty on the way, and was forced to dock at the port of Istanbul, Turkey. Since Turkey refused to accept refugees, these stowaways had to live on board for two months. There were only four sinks, one clean tap and eight toilets on the ship. The difference in living conditions can be imagined. On February 23, 1942, due to the late disapproval of the British colonial authorities to receive the refugees, the impatience of Turkey forcibly dragged the “Strumma” to the Black Sea.
The more terrible thing happened – in the early hours of the 24th, a Soviet submarine used the “Strumma” as a cargo ship that transported strategic supplies to Nazi Germany, launching a torpedo to sink it. Almost all of the men, women and children on board were killed, and only one survived. Even after the end of World War II, the anti-Jewish trend in Europe did not follow, and Jews everywhere continued to sneak into Palestine in various ways. In July 1947, a freighter named “Exdous” carried about 4,500 homeless Jewish refugees to Palestine. When approaching the Palestinian coast, the freighter was discovered by the British Navy. The British ordered the ship to stop, but the latter still forcibly approached the coast. The British Navy forced the boarding by force and subdued the rebel crew and refugees. The British believe that these Jewish refugees cannot be allowed to enter Palestine and force them back to Europe.
Due to the nowhere to place, the British decided to send them to Germany and settled in two refugee camps controlled by the British. This is tantamount to a nightmare reappearance for Jews who have just escaped from the Nazi German concentration camp. When the cargo ship entered the port of Hamburg, Germany, the crew and the refugees refused to disembark. The British unceremoniously used force again to place the refugees in the camps of the British occupation in Germany. Although the British prevented Jewish refugees from attempting to sneak into the country, these incidents have greatly damaged the international image of Britain. Under the pressure of public opinion, the process of dividing the independence of the Palestinians has greatly accelerated. In May 1948, Israel established its country.
“Golden Adventure” and “Stolen Disaster” After the end of the Cold War, a large number of Eastern Europeans went to work in Western Europe because of the obvious economic differences between the Soviet Union and its controlled Eastern Europe and Western Europe. Western Europe, which had an open immigration policy during the Cold War, began to tighten immigration policies at this time, and a large-scale smuggling wave occurred in Europe. In 1992, there were 438,000 illegal immigrants entering Germany alone.
By 2001, millions of illegal immigrants had entered Western Europe. There are many ways for these immigrants to enter Western Europe. Among them, the sea is the most dangerous, and there are at least thousands of illegal immigrants drowning in the sea every year due to shipwrecks. On December 26, 1996, more than 280 stowaways from Sri Lanka, India and Pakistan were killed in a shipwreck in the waters south of Sicily, Italy. The land is also not safe. In addition to the tragedy caused by the hiding trucks in the Dover tragedy, it will be threatened by war in some areas. For example, when refugees from the Middle East and Eastern Europe sneak into Greece, the usual route is to cross the Greek and Turkish borders.
However, the relationship between Greece and Turkey has been tense for a long time. There are many mines on the border between the two countries. Many illegal immigrants have been killed by thunder. In the Asia-Pacific region, economic temptations also drive stowaways to desperate. The “Golden Adventure” event, considered “changing the history of smuggling,” took place in 1993. This is an old freighter that is not suitable for the ocean. It was bought by the Taiwanese “snake head” Li Pengfei for smuggling. After 286 smugglers (mostly Fujianese in China), it hid all the way and spent four months before arriving at the US coast. Unexpectedly, due to the smuggling of the group, the “Golden Adventure” waited for two weeks on the coast and no one responded. Members of the smuggling group were worried about being arrested and forced the smugglers to go swimming in the sea. As a result, 10 people were killed and 6 people were missing. The rest of the stowaways were captured by the US police.
This “smuggling disaster” that shocked the world triggered a major change in the US anti-smuggling policy: in the past, only “snakeheads” and crew members were detained. In this case, all stowaways, including women and children, were imprisoned. This practice has been followed by countries and has become a new practice. Since then, the US government has been more rigorous in smuggling on the sea, and the smuggling organization has become more inclined to land, that is, to enter the United States from the US-Mexico border. Usually, the smuggling group will put more than 20 stowaways into a modified container mezzanine. During the 20-hour driving period, they can’t move, even have to lie down. Some stowaways later admitted that if they did not desperately beat the top of the container, a tragedy like Dover had already occurred on the US border.
“Vietnamese boat people” tide a history of blood and tears The Vietnam War and related incidents triggered the largest sudden and trending ship-to-boat smuggling in the history of the world – the “Vietnamese boat people” incident. How many Vietnamese boat people have died at sea? There are no exact figures so far.
According to statistics from the UN refugee agency, from 1975 to the end of 1978, ships from 31 countries rescued 186 Vietnamese smugglers on the high seas and rescued 8,674 refugees; 81 ships and 4031 people in the second half of 1979. According to unofficial statistics, there are at least 290,000 Vietnamese in the tide of Vietnamese boat people “going to the sea of anger”, 10%-15% of which are killed by shipwrecks, pirate attacks, guilt, hunger or shipowners. The UNHCR investigation also confirmed the extremely high risk faced by these illegal immigrants: 77% of Vietnamese smugglers arrived on the coast of Thailand in 1981, 571 were pirates, 571 were killed, 599 were raped and 243 were abducted. In October 1978, the “Haihong” carrying 2,500 Vietnamese boat people arrived in Malaysia after a long journey, but the request for landing was rejected.
This overcrowded vessel was forced to drift on the high seas. In the rafting of the sea for more than two months, the boat people have been lacking in water, medical supplies and enough food. At the time, the media described, “The scent of urinating scent is like a cloud covering the cabin. The faeces and sweat are wrapped around the ship’s edge. Some people are leaning against the boat, and some people are silently lying on the rusted deck.” The popularity of television, the tragic experience of the boat people is more lively in front of the world, shocking the world.
But this is not a case of tragic encounters among the boat people. At the end of March 1979, the Vietnamese smuggler MH3012 was loaded with 237 stowaways to the coast of Malaysia. The engine was overloaded due to severe overload, and the pump was damaged. The result was that it was drifted for 4 days without power and without recharge. The ship was discovered. However, the Malaysian Navy has forcibly towed the smuggling ship away from the coast to prevent the boat people from boarding the Malaysian territory. At this time, 10 boat people had been dehydrated and died.
During the towing process, the smuggling boat sank into the water, and only 124 of the 237 stowaways were spared. In October 1979, a smuggling vessel carrying 81 Vietnamese boat people traveled from southern Vietnam to Malaysia. After three days of driving, they lost power. After drifting for seven days, they encountered a Thai fishing boat and were looted. After that, another Thai fishing boat once again “patrolled” the smuggling ship. When the boat people were in poverty, they took the power-losing smuggling boat and drove it to the deserted Kokra Island in the waters of Thailand.
Since then, three smuggling vessels have been looted and dragged here. The total number of illegal immigrants on the island is 173, of which 16 are dead. The survivors have also been looted and blackmailed by many Thai fishermen. It was not until November 18 that the UNHCR discovered four abandoned smugglers and rescued the remaining 157 people. This tragedy, known as the “Kekra event”, was quickly circulated as a sensational case in the history of the “Vietnamese boat people” because of the lack of Vietnamese famous writers and artists. .