With the continuous breakthroughs in algorithms, computing power and big data, artificial intelligence has been widely used in economic, social, military and other fields, and has become the driving force and engine for promoting economic development, technological innovation and combat effectiveness. But artificial intelligence technology is also a double-edged sword, which may become the “Pandora Box” that causes global risks and challenges. May cause many risks and challenges First, artificial intelligence military competition may trigger a new round of arms race. The development of artificial intelligence technology is gestating the chain breakthrough of the new military revolution, which may become the core technology to change the national military strength. Artificial intelligence will be a new lever for large countries to shape their military superiority.
By advancing the deployment of smart weapons, it will achieve an iterative upgrade of combat capabilities, maintaining or building military capabilities and new generations. For small and medium-sized countries, the huge empowerment effect of artificial intelligence may make up for its disadvantages in terms of territory, population, economy, etc., and gain the strength and opportunity to challenge big countries. To this end, the world’s major powers and some small and medium-sized countries with leading technology are stepping up the development of artificial intelligence development strategies and plans, promoting the development of intelligent weapon systems, and promoting the transformation of military forces into intelligence.
According to the “third offset” strategy that the US military is advancing, 80% of projects are closely related to artificial intelligence technology. From the practical application point of view, the intelligent weapon system has been used in the two wars of terrorism in the United States and in the recent military conflicts in the Middle East. The military application of artificial intelligence has become a development trend, and the military competition of artificial intelligence has the potential to evolve into a new round of arms race. Second, artificial intelligence military applications may significantly lower the threshold for war. With the large-scale use of autonomous weapon systems, war confrontation may first be carried out between machines and machines. Robots, drones, unmanned submarines and other autonomous weapons will become the most advanced forces deployed, and people will gradually retreat to the background. The role of operations and command, the number of casualties on the battlefield is significantly reduced.
The development of military intelligence has spawned non-killing means of warfare such as cognitive warfare, disability warfare, and cyber warfare. It may no longer aim at destroying opponents, but by controlling each other’s cognition and actions, and increasing the war. The possibility of casualties. The anti-personal actions under intelligent conditions are mainly implemented by autonomous machines, and the combat style is mainly based on autonomous remote unmanned attacks, which reduces the cost of war. These factors can make the war seem more “humane” and “cheap”, reducing the moral responsibility and political pressure of war decision-makers to wage war. In addition, smart weapons deployed in new combat space such as networks, space, and deep seas are more concealed. It is difficult to determine who is the initiator and become a “grey zone” for military confrontation.
Third, the proliferation of smart technologies will exacerbate non-traditional risks. The most significant difference between artificial intelligence technology and previous nuclear and chemical weapons is diffusibility. Because of the low cost and high empowerment of smart technology, it is easy to be mastered and used by non-state actors such as terrorist organizations and individuals, and has become a tool for terrorists, criminal organizations, hackers, etc. to destroy and commit crimes. Similar incidents in which Venezuela’s President Maduro was attacked by drones demonstrated the non-traditional security challenges that smart technology may cause and brought new challenges to international security governance. Co-governance can prevent problems before they happen These risks, which may be caused by the application of artificial intelligence technology, have caused worldwide concerns and promoted the international community to ponder the development and application of artificial intelligence.
In the face of international security risks in the era of intelligence, the international community can only work together, or permit to start from the following aspects: The first is to establish a common goal. The international community should recognize the reality of “one glory and one loss” in the application of artificial intelligence, understand that there is no winner in the confrontation of the intelligent era, and then ensure that artificial intelligence is used for peaceful purposes, and advocate the use of artificial intelligence to serve the prosperity of the world. With development, sharing the opportunities and conveniences brought by intelligent technology, eliminating the zero-sum thinking, the Cold War mentality model is spreading in the intelligent era, preventing the digital divide and self-enclosure.
To this end, all countries should take co-governance as a way to break the previous practice of “snowing the snow” and advocate the handling of contradictions and disputes in the field of artificial intelligence through exchanges and dialogues, and eliminate discrimination and double standards in the development process. The second is to promote responsibility sharing. All countries, especially large artificial intelligence countries, should effectively assume their due international responsibilities and prevent vicious competition and arms race that may be caused by artificial intelligence.
In particular, it will prevent the abuse of smart technology in the military, and will not develop and use intelligent equipment that is contrary to human dignity and has a large-scale destructive effect. In addition, all countries have an obligation to strengthen the management and guidance of the development of smart technology in the country to ensure that artificial intelligence is used for legitimate purposes. The third is to fight against group defense. Before Einstein died, he regretted that his invention was used to develop nuclear weapons, and that it was a huge mistake made by himself. In order to prevent similar errors in the intelligent era, we must work hard to promote the international community’s prevention and treatment, and begin to discuss the establishment of an artificial intelligence international governance system.
Countries should take risk prevention ahead and not wait for the crisis and risk to come and respond passively. Focusing on common governance, countries should pay special attention to preventing the proliferation of smart technologies and the overlapping risks brought about by the proliferation of nuclear and biotechnology, and jointly explore cooperation mechanisms to combat artificial intelligence terrorism and international crimes, and maintain network security and public safety in the intelligent age. . The fourth is to deepen international exchanges. In order to achieve common goals, address common challenges, and prevent the emergence of two worlds, two standards, and two systems in the field of intelligent development, promoting international exchanges and cooperation is the most urgent practical need.
All countries should stop making obstacles and shackles for other countries’ development, respect the legitimate rights of other countries to develop smart technologies, stop the suppression of other enterprises’ institutions, and promote smart technology cooperation and product trade on the basis of equality and mutual benefit.
The international community should work to promote the exchange of artificial intelligence technology and talents, promote common technical standards and technology access, and prevent malicious technology from being blocked. All countries should establish exchanges and cooperation mechanisms on the basis of openness and transparency, exchange views through diplomatic dialogue, international conferences, defense cooperation, and scholars’ exchanges to prevent strategic misjudgment and technical confrontation, and build a mutual trust mechanism in the field of artificial intelligence.
The fifth is to build international rules. At present, the international community has not established the international rules of artificial intelligence that they have abide by, but some scholars and people of insight have recognized the necessity and urgency of building international rules. Scholars in China, Europe, and Japan have called for and explored the establishment of artificial intelligence. International rules. At the 5th World Internet Conference held in Wuzhen, China last year, some scholars called for the development of international standards for artificial intelligence as soon as possible.
In April this year, the European Commission published the ethical code of artificial intelligence. In May of this year, Chinese research institutes jointly issued the “Artificial Intelligence Beijing Consensus” and proposed 15 principles. In this context, the international community should promote the development of artificial intelligence international rules in a timely manner, draw on historical experiences in the fields of nuclear, biological, conventional weapons and other fields to explore the international rules of the development and application of artificial intelligence, and regard the status and use of intelligent weapons. Research and discussion on scope and limitations, safety and controllable standards, and the relationship between people and machines ensure that artificial intelligence becomes a tool for humans, not the other way around.