Aristotle’s ethics is generally based on the description of the special nature of human activities. The theory of happiness and the theory of virtue as two interpretations of this teleological ethics, closer to practical matters. The essence.
First, the definition of happiness
“Nicmaco Ethics” first tells that good is the purpose of all things, and the highest good that can be achieved in human practice is happiness. Most people share this general concept, but for specific happiness, people are accustomed to making judgments from their own survival experience. These judgments are generally divided into three kinds of life, but this is not perfect, happiness should be One of the souls is a fulfilling activity of perfection.
(1) Happiness as the highest good
Aristotle first proposed the irrationality of the concept of “type” applied by Plato’s school to “goodness” from three aspects, distinguishing the concept of goodness that he said from the concept of goodness of Plato, and further Happiness is defined as the highest good that can be achieved by human practice.
The concept of goodness is a common phenomenon in the perspective of Plato, not from a single individual. In the “Ideology”, Plato doubled the world through the cave metaphor. He “likens the cave to the visible world, that is, the world composed of visible individual things, and the outside world is likened to the world, that is, the world composed of ideas. “. It can be seen that the relationship between the world and the sensible world is “divided.” The existence of individual things is due to the idea that they are divided into similar things. This is the “type” proposed by the Plato school.
Although the Plato school proposed a general concept of things, they did not apply them to events in a prioritized order, such as “scientific numbers.” Aristotle believes that the nature and relationship of good and good nature should also be in order, because absolute or entity takes precedence over relations in essence, so the Plato school uses both the universal concept of good to describe the good entity. To describe the nature and relationship of goodness, this is not in line with their own logic. Second, good has many meanings. It can be said that an entity, such as Nus or God, can also describe nature, such as virtue, so it cannot be a universal concept of separation, because if it is, he can only talk about it. A category that does not apply to all categories. Third, because there are many kinds of skills and research, practice and choice, there are many purposes, so good is different in every activity or skill. For example, good is healthy in medicine and victory in tactics. Practice is the purpose of each practice. But the things belonging to the same type in the Plato’s theory must be the object of the same subject. If there is a science that can study all the good things, this is obviously unreasonable. Aristotle thus divided his goodness with Plato as the type of good.
With regard to the definition of goodness, Aristotle in the first volume of Nicomachean Ethics, closely linked the purpose of good and the same, and concluded that “happiness is the highest good”, from the perspective of teleology The angle illustrates the ethical value of happiness. He wrote, “Every skill and study of man, practice and choice are for a good purpose. So some people say that everything is good for the purpose.” Good is different in every activity and skill, such as It is healthy in medicine, victory in tactics, a house in architecture, the purpose in activities and choices, everything else is done for it. But not all purposes are perfect. In reality, some things are usually used as a means by us and rarely as an end. Some things are often used as a means of purpose, while others are used as a means of purpose. That is to say, among these purposes, some things are for their own sake, and some things are pursued by us for other purposes. Some things are pursued by us at the same time. Therefore, there is a distinction of “level”. If an activity contains different kinds of activities and each has its own purpose, then the purpose of the activity itself is dominant, and it is superior to those specific purposes because it has a greater implication. In other words, there must be some final end point in our aim. We have no further reasons for pursuing it. This is the highest kind of good.
Here we summarize the characteristics of the so-called highest good: First, it is used for all purposes of our activities, for its own sake, as our purpose, we pursue other things for it; second, It should be something perfect, and we refer to those things that are always worthy of their own desires because of their own things. Third, perfect goodness should be self-sufficient, self-sufficiency refers to one thing. It can make it worthy of its own desires.
Compared with other things, we always seem to choose it forever because of happiness itself. As for honor, happiness, Nuss 1 and each virtue, we choose them because of ourselves, but we also because of happiness. The reason for choosing them. So most people think that this highest good is happiness.
(2) Happiness and Virtue
Although people agree that the highest goodness that can be practiced is happiness, they hold different opinions about what is a happy person in practice. Because the understanding of happiness is determined by people’s lifestyle and understanding of life. Generally speaking, people have three kinds of life: a happy life, a political life and a contemplative life. The life of pleasure is only the pursuit of physical pleasure, is animal-like; political life pursues honor and virtue 2, in this life, virtue is greater than honor, but even virtue is not perfect Because virtue can not be reflected in practice in this kind of life; happiness should be a kind of realization activity of the soul that fits the perfect virtue, that is, the virtue of the human soul in the logo part Implementation activities.
To discern this sentence, we must first explore the essence of virtue: happiness is the activity of the human soul, the soul is divided into two parts: logos and no logos (plant parts), the soul has logic The part of Sri Lanka also has a distinction between the logos (rational part) and the logos (the part of desire) in the sense of listening to logos. Listening to logos is a practice of exhortation, accusation, and suppression. in. The distinction between virtues also corresponds to the division of souls. Virtue is divided into rational virtues and moral virtues. Reasonableness is mainly developed and developed through teaching, such as wisdom and wisdom, moral morality is cultivated through habits, such as generosity and moderation, and rationality leads people to achieve moral virtue. In terms of species and genus, virtue is the quality of a person’s choice and exists in the moderation relative to us.
Secondly, we have to explain what kind of human behavior is considered to be moral. Different from the skill, we must first use them to obtain them, that is to say, only through the realization of virtue can achieve virtue. This requires people not only to use virtue, but also to ask people to be conscious of the environment and nature of the things they do. He must do so after choosing, and people must do it for a certain, stable quality. .
Second, the acquisition of happiness
For the acquisition of happiness, it is necessary to pass the practical activities of the virtues, complete goodness and time of life. How can happiness face various real problems in a specific experience life?
(1) The happiness of the world
Is happiness the gift of practice or the gift of God or luck 3? Aristotle’s discussion of God’s gift may not be much, and comparing the gains of practice with luck is obviously an effort to get better, because if all the noblest things are to be taken for luck, they are colleagues. The order of things does not match, so we have reason to believe that 5 is the way to get happiness, and the external luck is just a supplement to happiness. From this point of view, happiness is widely enjoyed by people and is based on their own learning and practice. Happiness is widely enjoyed because “all those who have not lost their ability to approach virtue can obtain it through some kind of study or effort”. Getting happiness is not done overnight, it requires complete goodness and a lifetime of time.
To be happy requires a time of perfect life. Does this mean that a person’s life will be happy after he has finished his life? If we wait until a person dies and say that he enjoyed his happiness before his death, and he does not want to admit his happiness in his happy moment, this is obviously ridiculous, then how can you get the happiness of a lifetime? A German-style activity can make us happy, in the sense that the activities of the German virtue have the most lasting nature, even longer than science. Knowledge based on science can easily be forgotten, and activities based on quality and virtue are not easily forgotten, because happy people continue to use their lives most and for all, they are always thinking and Doing a thing of virtue. So happy people have stability and happiness in their lives.
(2) The impact of changes in life on happiness
We mentioned earlier that luck is an external supplement to happiness, and that luck has a variety of causes and degrees of difference. Can people get a stable happiness in their lives? Obviously we can’t say that a person is happy at this time, and he is not happy at the time, because the activities of the virtues have the most lasting nature. Because of the changes in these luck, happy people will accept it in the most noble way. Tiny good fortune and misfortune are not enough to change life, but great fortunes will add to life, and major misfortune will bring life to life. pain. However, even in the midst of pain, the glory is shining, because a person’s life is determined by his activities. A happy person will not change himself because of luck. He will never do what he hates. He will Treat these changes in the most noble way in his situation.
The change happens when a person is alive or after his death. It is very different, such as the good or evil of a deceased person or a friend, and various accidents, etc., although it is impossible to say that this is a happy person. No effect, but the impact is minimal. If so, happy people will never suffer.
Through the definition of happiness in Nichomac’s Ethics and how to get happiness, it is easy to see the emphasis on “practice”, which is the tendency of idealism in the ethical thoughts of ancient Greece before him. It is a breakthrough, but in the end he has turned this well-constructed realization into meditation and has not completely escaped the limitations of traditional thinking.