“Black Friday” superstition
On May 13, 2011, it was a day that was considered unlucky by Westerners – “Black Friday” and the only “Black Friday” in the year. In 2009, there were three “Black Fridays”. Since the Roman Catholic Pope Gregory XIII advocated the use of the Gregorian calendar (the Gregorian calendar) in 1582, the most frequently occurring year in the year.
“Black Friday” is rooted in Western religious beliefs and superstitions: Jesus Christ died on Friday, and “13” is an ominous number, both of which represent bad luck. The combination of the two makes people believe that the day will be unfortunate. thing. So, no matter what year and month, as long as it is 13th and coincides with Friday, that day is called “Black Friday.”
Some studies believe that the quirky calendar phenomenon has led to the creation of “Black Friday” superstition. According to the Gregorian calendar, there is a leap year every four years, but there is no leap year in the whole hundred years, unless this year can be divisible by 400 (such as 1900 is not a leap year, 2000 is a leap year), this small change The error that occurs between the changes in the seasons formed to adjust the Earth’s revolution and the calendar that has been set. The corresponding sequence of dates and weeks is repeated every 400 years. In these 400 years, there are three “Black Fridays” in some years, some years appear twice, and some years (such as 2011) only appear once. The 400-year cycle can be further subdivided into 28- or 40-year cycles, with three “Black Fridays” appearing in the year before the last year of each cycle, and three in the tenth year of each cycle. “Black Friday.” For example, 2009 was the tenth year of a cycle that began in 2000, and in 2009 there were three “Black Fridays” (February 13, March 13, and November 13, respectively).
Regarding the origins of “Black Friday” and the number “13” superstition, some people think that it can be traced back to Norwegian mythology: 12 gods hosted a dinner in the paradise of Valhalla, but the 13th guest did not ask for it – the god of evil Rocky. Loki ordered the god of darkness, Hoddle, to shoot the god of light, Badr, with an arrow. After Badr was shot, the earth fell into darkness, and this day became the most unfortunate and ominous day on earth. There is also a saying in the Bible: Judas, one of Jesus’ apostles, is the one who sold Jesus. He was the 13th guest who appeared on the “last supper”; Friday was the day when Jesus was crucified; Friday was also some Biblical scholars believe that Eve tempted Adam to taste the forbidden fruit. The most important argument for the origin of “Black Friday” is that Abel was killed by his brother Cain on Friday 13th.
Modern superstition about “Black Friday” is not inferior to ancient times. Someone linked the number “13” to the “Apollo 13” mission to the moon. Two days after the launch of the fateful “Apollo 13” spacecraft, the explosion of the oxygen tank in the service compartment severely damaged the spacecraft, causing the three astronauts to experience a lack of electricity, normal temperature and drinking water in space. Tribulation, and finally return to Earth.
Some people are convinced of the “Black Friday” superstition, and they fear that they will not travel by plane on the “Black Friday” day, they will not buy stocks, they will not buy houses, and so on. It is estimated that as many as 17 million to 21 million Americans are plagued by the fear of “Black Friday”. Because many people do not operate normally as usual on “Black Friday”, the loss of the US business in this day is as high as 800 million to 900 million US dollars.
The “Black Friday” superstition has brought many adverse effects to people’s health and social life. The phobia caused by the “Black Friday” superstition can range from mild anxiety to extreme panic, which disrupts people’s life order and work schedule. Psychologists have found that those who think they are unfortunate are more likely to believe in some superstitious claims associated with bad luck. The superstitious thoughts and behaviors of superstitious people are an integral part of their entire worldview. They believe that luck is an incredible mysterious force that is enough to ruin their lives.
How is superstition produced?
In addition to “Black Friday”, there are other common superstitions in the Western world, such as the number “13”, the road encounters black cats and bad luck (on Friday 13th, when encountering black cats, it is even worse for seven years, because many Westerners believe that black cats are witches. Changed, indoor umbrella or walking under the ladder will be unlucky, putting a hat on the bed will bring bad luck, as well as Halloween pranks, April Fools’ Day pranks, and so on. Where did these superstitious superstitions come from? Since the origins of many superstitions have long since disappeared into the fog of time, now we can only answer this question by guessing.
Some superstitions are based on common sense. For example, don’t put your hat on the bed to avoid head lice infection; don’t walk under the ladder to avoid being smashed by the things that may fall on it; cover your mouth when sneezing To avoid the spread of bacteria. In addition, when you want to let people do or not do something, it is more effective to use superstition than to talk or scare in a long story, especially for children.
Many superstitions come from human “unreasonable beliefs.” Superstitious people believe that the fate of a person is controlled by some invisible mysterious force (usually referred to as the devil’s god), which has some consequences (usually a bad negative event). Therefore, in order to prevent or prevent the occurrence of disasters, people need to take certain specific circumvention actions or measures. A variety of superstitions have arisen. “Magic Faith: Superstition Psychology” points out that there are many things in life that are important to us. We really want to confirm whether they will happen, but we often can’t do it. For those things that we can’t control, superstition gives us a sense of control, and the significance is that we can at least do something.
The deep meaning of superstition on the road of evolution
Superstition seems stupid, but new research suggests that superstition may have some deeper meaning on the path of human evolution.
Some superstitious claims, such as avoiding walking under a ladder or avoiding where black cats pass, seem irrational, but a new study suggests that these superstitions may stem from the instinct of human beings to avoid disadvantages. The seemingly unreasonable behaviors derived from the evolution process actually have the meaning of protecting humans from danger.
American evolutionary biologist Kevin Foster is very curious about the sheer number of human superstitions. He said, “A large number of popular books describe superstition as crazy and irrational…some psychology and sociology The scientific literature also thinks so, but we can’t help but ask: Why does evolution lead to so many ridiculous superstitions in human beings? Is there a reasonable explanation behind the most irrational human psychology?”
Foster and his partners designed a computer model to study how an animal associates two events, such as grass rustling and predator emergence. In some cases, these two events are linked by causality; in other cases, there is no logical connection between the two events, such as grass rustling may be caused by wind and grass, not Predators have appeared. Scientists believe that even if there is no correlation between the two events, for the animal, there will be no loss of linking them together, and if there is a real connection between them, then for it It may be a matter of life and death, and always be vigilant to save its life at a critical moment.
Computer simulations show that animals are often frightened by the wind and the grass, but as long as they can be prevented from being attacked by carnivores lurking in the grass because of their vigilance, it is enough to save their lives.
The inner psychological process that leads to superstition is very important, and this new study points to the potential value of some superstitious ideas. Of course, it needs further confirmation.