People often ask us about medical examinations:
——Doctor, what do you check for physical examination?
——What kind of items should I choose if I want to do a medical examination for my husband?
——Doctor, I want to take my parents for a medical examination. How should I choose?
– Is it going to the hospital or going to the medical examination center for medical examination?
I have actually encountered many cases in the clinic because of the physical examination, which was discovered in the early stages of the disease, and thus only took a small amount of money to finally cure. This is not only a great help to alleviate the financial burden of a family, but more importantly, for many serious cases, the early detection of treatment is far superior to the advanced.
For example, breast cancer, the most common malignant tumor in Chinese women, has a five-year survival rate of only 25% in the case of distant metastases, and 98% in the case of early carcinoma in situ.
It can be seen that physical examination is a very necessary and important thing. So, today we will come to talk to you about the medical examinations.
What are the common medical examination items?
Physical examination, referred to as physical examination, also known as physical examination, physical examination or health examination, is a method for doctors to use their own senses, examination instruments, laboratory equipment, etc. to directly or indirectly examine the patient’s physical condition. The purpose is to collect patients’ health. Objective data to detect hidden dangers early.
Generally speaking, an ordinary physical examination includes: height, weight, vision, blood routine, urine routine, stool routine, liver and kidney function, lung function test, blood pressure, blood sugar, blood lipid, 12-lead ECG, abdominal color ultrasound, etc. project.
If these tests do not detect an abnormality, then basically we can say that your physical condition is relatively healthy. If there is an exception, you need to do further inspection based on the abnormal project.
Female medical examination items that should be added
In addition to the general medical examination items, some medical examination items should be added for the particularity of women.
1. Gynecological color Doppler: Look at the uterus and bilateral attachments for any space-occupying lesions or abnormal structures.
2. Breast color ultrasound: understanding the breast with or without hyperplasia or nodules, can be used as one of the basic screening methods for breast cancer.
3. Cervical TCT (liquid-based thin-layer cell test): Screening for cervical inflammation, cervical precancerous lesions, and detection of microbial infections in the vagina by brushing the cells of the cervix and the secretions on the surface of the cervix. Wait.
4. Human papillomavirus (HPV) test: check whether the cervix has human papillomavirus infection, among which high-risk HPV infection such as HPV16, HPV18 and other genotypes are closely related to cervical cancer, while low-risk HPV infection such as HPV6, HPV11, etc. The type is closely related to genital warts.
In addition, women’s pre-pregnancy examination items include: general medical history inquiry, physical examination, vaginal discharge routine examination, cervical TCT and HPV, hematuria routine examination, blood type, liver and kidney function tests, hepatitis B, AIDS, syphilis, hepatitis C and other infections. Screening for sexually transmitted diseases, detection of thyroid function, and electrocardiogram. You can also check out a TORCH (conventional check-up program for genital tract infections in women during pregnancy).
Male medical examination items that should be added
Because men and women have different physiological structures, plus differences in living habits, there are some highly targeted tests for men.
1. Prostate examination: Prostate disease is the most common disease in men. Nowadays, there is a common digital rectal examination, which can touch the prostate and initially determine whether there is abnormal growth and whether there is a tumor.
The protein hidden in the blood can be measured by the prostate specific antigen test, and if the test result is higher than the normal range, there is a possibility of canceration.
2. Pulmonary examination: Male smoking rate is relatively high, even if you do not smoke, it is more accessible to smokers, so you can check the lungs for any lesions. Pulmonary function tests are an important way to detect early lung disease and respiratory diseases.
3. Liver examination: There are also many people who drink alcohol in men. This requires an increase in alpha-fetoprotein testing, because alpha-fetoprotein is a marker of liver tumors, so adult examination can initially determine whether there is cancer in the liver.
Elderly medical examination items that should be added
For some serious diseases, especially some malignant tumors and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular accidents, the incidence will rise rapidly after the age of 50. Therefore, a reliable, safe and economical physical examination is essential for people of this age. If we take our parents to a medical examination, the following items are essential.
1. Tumor markers: The greater the age of a person, the greater the probability of exposure to carcinogens and the greater the likelihood of developing cancer. For people over the age of 50, cardiovascular disease and cancer are the leading causes of death, so it is important to increase the necessary tumor screening.
2. Check the fundus: Many diseases can be found in time through fundus examination. For example, if the retinal artery is hardened, the degree of systemic arteriosclerosis and cerebral arteriosclerosis can be known. If there is a blurred vision and headache in the near future, it is more necessary to check the fundus.
3. Bone mineral density: A national large-scale epidemiological survey from 2003 to 2006 showed that the prevalence rate of osteoporosis (based on vertebral and femoral neck bone density values) in women over 50 years old was 20.7. %, male is 14.4%; the prevalence of osteoporosis is significantly higher in people over 60 years old, especially in women. Therefore, bone mineral density examination in the elderly is also very necessary.
4. Gastrointestinaloscopy: Gastrointestinal examination is generally used to diagnose esophageal, stomach and colon diseases. The gastrointestinal problems of middle-aged and elderly people are more, the incidence of esophageal cancer, stomach cancer and colorectal cancer ranks in the top five, so you can do a gastroscope. At present, painless gastroscope has been promoted, and it is painless and convenient.
If the elderly at home are already suffering from certain diseases, they should pay more attention to the relevant examinations.
Elderly with heart disease: increased carotid ultrasound, echocardiography, blood viscosity, and coronary CTA (CT angiography).
Elderly people with high blood pressure: can increase ambulatory blood pressure, arterial elasticity test.
Elderly people with chronic lung disease: increase lung function tests.
Elderly people with diabetes: increase postprandial blood glucose, insulin determination, EMG, lower extremity vascular B-ultrasound, etc.
Elderly people with thyroid disease: increase the determination of thyroid function and antibodies.
Choose a public hospital or a private institution?
At present, the medical examination industry is a mixed bag, and most organizations can provide quality services, but there are also some organizations that use various gimmicks to swindle.
Private stereo inspection agencies may have a good service attitude and give people a good experience, but the quality of medical examination is difficult to guarantee, and follow-up treatment, intervention, and health management are almost inconsistent.
There are many public hospitals, and the service experience is not very good. However, after all, the personnel and equipment are clinical and regular medical personnel and equipment. The quality of the examination will not be bad. If serious diseases are detected, the follow-up hospitalization can keep up. Health interventions and health management will also be handled by full-time medical staff.
If it is a medical examination, the medical examination will go private and fast. If you are responsible for your own body, go to public and steady. Of course, in the end, I still look at my personal choice.
In fact, regardless of the age of men and women, regardless of the possible diseases, the principle of “early detection, early diagnosis, early treatment” is universal.
I hope that whether you, your partner, or the elderly at home, it is best to have a physical examination every year, early detection, early prevention, timely treatment, and peace of mind.