On May 20, 1910, at the funeral of King Edward VII of England, Alfonso XIII of Spain, George V of England, Frederick VIII of Denmark, Haakon VII of Norway, Ferdinand I of Bulgaria, Portugal Manuel II, Wilhelm II of Germany, George I of Greece, and Albert I of Belgium all attended the scene and left a precious photo. This is a “final funeral”, and since then, this kind of happy scene is hard to see.
On July 28, 1914, the Austro-Hungarian Empire declared war on Serbia, and the first battle was officially kicked off. Soon, the war spread throughout Europe. The end of the war: William II fell to the Netherlands in exile, the Norwegian, Dutch, and Spanish royal families retreated because of the choice of neutrality. Belgium and Greece, despite their original intention, were still passively involved in the war. Strong people such as Belgium self-improvement ushered in victory, the weak, such as Greece joined the Allies at the end of the war, but Constantine I was forced to abdicate. Even more than Manuel II of Portugal has not waited for a war, because the domestic coup has been dethroned. In addition to some neutral countries, the Italian Savoy royal family, the Bulgarian Saxony-Coburg-Goda royal family, etc. have been able to breathe, but also under the hidden dangers of various hidden dangers, the good times are not long.
After the First World War and the Second World War, the revolutions of various countries were surging, and the era of monarchy in Europe came to an end, and the royal family followed. In 1946, the Italian and Bulgarian referendums, the monarchy was abolished. The Italian Savoy royal family Umberto II was forced to abdicate, the Italian Republic was established; after the establishment of the Bulgarian People’s Republic, the last Tsar Simeon II was exiled overseas, and the Gotha royal family ended in Bulgaria after three generations of rule, 1947 12 On the 30th of the month, the Romanian Socialist Republic was established, the monarchy was terminated, and Mikhail I officially abdicated. After the Second World War, the Greek kingdom, which still retained the monarch, experienced civil war and military coup. In 1974, the referendum abolished the monarchy and the Republic was established, ending the rule of the Glücksburg royal family in Greece for more than 100 years. Under the subversion of the war, the European royal family that once sang was paying for the war, and the crown was successively dropped.
In this game of power, some want to become rule-makers, but eventually become a victim. Even if they escaped the tide of subversion, they may not have re-shuffled in World War II. Today, throughout Europe, only the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Belgium, Spain and the Nordic countries still formally retain the monarch. Times change, the pattern changes, the modern European monarchy is constitutional, the royal temperament still exists, but no longer has real power.
Spain: successful restoration
Spain’s current Bourbon royal family, originated from the French Bourbon family, has ruled Spain intermittently since 1700. In the two world wars, although Spain remained neutral, its own toss has not stopped. After the war in Spain, the establishment of the Republic, and the restoration, the three characters played a key role in it.
In 1902, the newly formed Alfonso XIII was pro-government, facing a series of revolutionary movements that demanded the overthrow of the monarchy. Under the pressure of public opinion, Alfonso XIII has carried out some reforms in legislation, education and religion. During World War I, he maintained a neutral policy that allowed the already declining Spain to escape. But in order to keep the throne, Alfonso XIII supported General Rivela in establishing a dictatorship in 1923. This unwise decision directly led to the outbreak of the revolution. In 1931, the Second Republic of Spain was established. Alfonso XIII was forced to abdicate and fled, and died in Rome in exile. The Republican Party cheered for the end of the Bourbon dynasty, but it took only a short time to prove that they were too happy.
The life of the Second Republic in Spain lasted only eight years and it ended in a civil war. In 1936, Francisco Franco launched the Spanish Civil War and, with the support of Germany and Italy, won the victory in 1939, established a dictatorship, and exchanged Spain’s relative peace during World War II. In 1947, Franco resumed the monarchy, but vacated the throne and claimed that he was also the prime minister of the government, and decided to serve as the head of state of the royal family after his death. .
After several considerations, in 1969, Franco unexpectedly awarded the title of “The Prince of Spain”, the grandson of Alfonso XIII and the immediate descendant of the Bourbon dynasty, Juan Carlos. In 1975, after the death of Franco, Carlos officially ascended the throne on November 27 of that year. The Spanish monarchy resumed and the Bourbon royal family returned to the stage.
When Juan Carlos was a child, he moved to Italy with the royal family to avoid the second republic. At the age of 10, he first set foot on the land of Spain. In 1948, his father, the exiled Don Juan, asked Franco to send Carlos, 10, back to Spain for education. Franco also did his job very well, not only allowing Carlos to accept the traditional school education that is comparable to other European royal descendants, but also to enter the army, navy and air force military officers school, and serve in the army according to the rules. Franco seriously cultivated Carlos as heir. However, after Carlos succeeded to the throne, he did not continue to maintain the dictatorship. Instead, he returned to the people and became a virtual leader, and successfully transitioned to the constitutional monarchy. Despite this, the education and training that Carlos received made him perform at a critical moment. In 1981, Carlos personally frustrated the coup that wanted to restore the military dictatorship by the name of the king. He himself made a speech on television calling for people to support the democratic government, and thus got a higher support rate. Adhering to the fine traditions of the European royal family, Carlos married the Greek princess Sophia, the story should have been a perfect ending, but Carlos was not safe in his later years. After 2012, accompanied by his appearance, often hunting wild animals, extramarital affairs, illegitimate children and other news, the nationals’ sense of favor for the Spanish royal family also plummeted.
In June 2014, Juan Carlos announced his abdication in the televised speech, ending the 39-year rule, and his son Felipe VI succeeded to become the current Spanish king. The continued economic recession and difficulties in Spain have caused many problems for the young king. Even though he has gained more good feelings by lowering his annual salary and restraining the royal family, people still pay more attention to the royal family. The news of the “missing identity” broke out.
Denmark, Norway, Sweden: civilian royal family
Compared with many European royal families with various “secrets”, the royal family of several Nordic countries is simply a clear stream. The constitutional monarchy is implemented in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The Glücksburg dynasty is now ruling Denmark and Norway. Its members are descendants of the Danish King Christian III of the Oldenburg dynasty and are therefore regarded as a branch of the Oldenburg dynasty; Bernardotte Dynasty He ruled Sweden in 1818 and ruled Norway from 1818 to 1905.
Among the existing European kingdoms, the Kingdom of Denmark is the oldest, but in 1849 it was peacefully transitioned to constitutional monarchy. King Christian X of Denmark was reigned from 1912 to 1947, after two world wars. In World War I, he called on Denmark, Norway and Sweden to remain neutral. In 1915, a new constitution including the admission of women to politics was published. In 1920, Christian X and the Congress disagreed on the issue of Schleswig’s ownership. A “Easter Crisis” incited by the King became a turning point for the Danish royal family. After the crisis, the Danish royal family basically became a national symbol and lost its real power. During World War II, Christian X took out a king’s proper temperament: refusing to go abroad for refuge, during the Nazi Germany invasion of Denmark, daily horse-riding inspections, declared Danish sovereignty. Through his good offices, Denmark was able to maintain a high degree of autonomy among the Nazi German occupying powers and persisted in the end of World War II with a resistance movement. In 1947, Christian X died in Copenhagen, and his eldest son Frederick IX succeeded. Frederick has no male sons. During his reign, Denmark passed a new constitution, stipulating that women also have the right to inherit the throne. Margaret II, the eldest daughter of Frederick IX, became the current Danish queen in 1972. She has been in office for 45 years and is the second longest Danish monarch and the first in Denmark. queen. Margaret II himself said that the royal family has family rules and is not involved in political disputes at home or abroad. She is easygoing, plain, and close to the people. Under the leadership of this atmosphere, the entire Danish royal family has no contention and responsibility, and Margaret II has become a qualified image spokesperson.
In 1905, Norway became a monarchy and the Danish prince Haakon VII was chosen as the king. In the First World War, Denmark remained neutral. In World War II, it was occupied by Nazi Germany and established a dictatorship. King Haakon and his government were exiled in Britain. In 1945, after the liberation of Norway, Haakon VII and the then Crown Prince Olaf of the Norwegian Army and Admiral returned to the motherland, and the father and son were warmly welcomed by the people. In 1957, Haakon VII passed away and Olaf V succeeded to the throne. Previously, Olaf V had twice regents in 1945 and 1955, and accumulated rich experience in ruling. He himself was also full of personal charm. He won the gold medal in the 1928 Summer Olympic Games sailing competition and was the two winners of the Olympic gold medal. One of the kings (the other is the former Greek King Constantine II who also won the gold medal in the sail race). In the reconstruction work of the post-war countries, Olaf V actively participated in the national defense and actively participated in the cooperation of Norway and other projects such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The Norwegian King Harald V is now in the throne in 1991 and has been in office for 26 years.
In the two world wars, Sweden chose neutrality, even in the Cold War period after World War II, did not join any camp. This is a country that has been squandered for half a day. Since 1818, under the rule of the Bernadotte dynasty, it has escaped two world wars and successfully developed the economy. After the war, the ruling party repeatedly raised the question of whether or not the monarch was needed. In a referendum, public opinion showed that 64% were willing to retain the monarch and only 19% were elected to establish the president. In 1973, Carl XVI Gustaf took the throne, but the ruling party did not give up on weakening the kingship. The new Swedish Constitution, which came into force in January 1975, stipulated that the name of the commander-in-chief of the three kings was cancelled. The power to nominate the cabinet was owned by the speaker, and the weekly cabinet meeting did not have to be attended. In 1980, the parliament passed a new “Throne Succession Law”, which stipulated that the king’s first child, not the first son, would inherit the throne. Therefore, on January 1, 1980, Princess Victoria became the first queen reserve in Swedish history. As the King of Sweden, perhaps the most eye-catching job is to award the Nobel Prize winners since 1902.
The royal family of the three Nordic countries have their own philosophy of life. During the world oil crisis of the 1970s, Harald V took the lead in taking buses for the sake of the people; Margaret II loved stamps and advertising design, painted illustrations for the novels, and dressed in ordinary overalls. Known as the most intimate queen in Europe; Carl XVI Gustaf drives himself from his home in the suburbs to the palace in the city, and he looks like a passerby. Such a monarch, guarding the golden rule of the royal family, and the support of the people is also expected.
Netherlands: a rich queen
The current King of the Netherlands, William Alexander, took the throne on April 30, 2013. This day is also a big day destined to be included in the history of the Dutch royal family. Because of this inheritance of the throne, it ended the situation of the Queen as the highest head of state in the past 100 years.
Since 1815, the Netherlands has become a constitutional monarchy. Until now, under the rule of the Orange-Nassau Dynasty, it has experienced seven monarchs and three queens. The fourth monarch, Queen Wilhelmina, was enthroned in 1898. During the 50-year reign, after two world wars and the economic crisis of 1933, he witnessed many important nodes in Dutch history.
At the beginning of the 20th century, despite the opposition of various parties in the country, William Minna has been striving to maintain the neutrality of the Netherlands in the First World War to protect the country’s partial security. By the time of World War II, the invasion of Nazi Germany made the Dutch neutral plan bankrupt. In 1940, the Dutch royal family was in exile in London. The Queen formed the government in exile and opened an “orange show” through the BBC, showing the attitude of resistance. The Dutch queen of Germanic origin expressed a tough stance against Nazi Germany, earning a reputation for the royal family, symbolizing the orange color of the royal family, and also becoming a symbol of the resistance movement. In 1945, Germany was defeated, and the Queen returned to her homeland to rebuild the country. In 1948, she announced her resignation to her daughter Juliana. Juliana is an open-minded modern monarch. She abolishes curtsy and orders all the people to give her a letter that does not claim to be a servant, nor does she give her and her children a title of a ancestors. During the reign of the two queens, the Dutch royal family property increased several times and became the richest man in the European royal family. Beginning in the 1950s, people paid more attention and demands to the private life of the royal family. Although they had set off a wave of turmoil, they still failed to fundamentally shake the constitutional system of the monarchy in the Netherlands. The royal family continued to enjoy considerable popularity. As the two queens won the hearts of the people, in the 1977 poll, only 6% of the Dutch agreed to abolish the monarchy. Juliana’s 31-year-old reign was her daughter, Beatrix, who advocated European unification, caring for development in relations with the Third World, and chaired the European Working Group on Earthquake Relief in Iran.
According to 2015 data, the Dutch royal family spends 41 million euros a year, the king has an annual salary of 900,000 euros, and the king and queen do not need to pay taxes, and the royal family members’ wages will continue to rise. In the European royal family, the Dutch royal family is in the forefront of consumption. With the renewal of the times, the public’s attention to the royal family representing the image of the country is more rational and demanding. “I am responsible for making money and raising a family, you are responsible for the beauty of the flower” will eventually be questioned by the society, the royal family needs to find a way to survive. This applies not only to the Netherlands but also to other royal families.