The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recently released the “2019 Diabetes Management Standards” (hereinafter referred to as “Standards”), let us follow the latest standards and develop a better diabetes management plan for ourselves!
The intake of daily food is directly related to changes in blood sugar, and the importance of diet management is self-evident. Even if the patient has taken medication regularly or injected insulin, diet is still a key part of diabetes treatment. However, there is no fixed diet that is suitable for all diabetic patients. Therefore, the Standard recommends that diabetics and dieticians and physicians work together to develop a personalized diet. Under the premise of nutritional balance, the percentage is not overemphasized as long as the total calories do not exceed the recommended range. The Mediterranean diet, the DASH diet (a diet that prevents high blood pressure), and the botanical diet are all highly recommended healthy diets that patients can personalize on this basis. In addition, the Diabetes Dish provides a visualized diet control program by dividing the boundaries on the plate and is an option.
Carbohydrates Although studies have shown that low-carbohydrate diets help to better control blood sugar, not everyone is suitable for this program, especially pregnant women, lactating women, and kidney patients. In the choice of carbohydrates, it is strongly recommended to reduce the intake of refined carbohydrate foods and sugar additives, and replace them with carbohydrates such as beans, fruits, dairy products and coarse grains. Patients who use insulin to control their blood sugar should also consult a physician to adjust the dose of insulin based on the amount of carbohydrate intake.
Although protein studies have found that eating a little more protein per meal can increase satiety and contribute to diabetes management, overall, it is not recommended that diabetics consume more than the usual amount of protein (1 to 1.5 per kilogram of body weight per day). Gram). For patients with diabetic nephropathy, it is recommended to reduce protein intake to 0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight per day, but it is not advisable to reduce the intake below this baseline.
Compared with fat intake, fat intake has a greater impact on metabolic diseases and cardiovascular risks. The Standard recommends limiting the intake of saturated fat, increasing the intake of polyunsaturated fats and monounsaturated fats, and avoiding the intake of trans fats. In addition, a number of studies have shown that nutritional supplements containing omega-3 fatty acids do not improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes, so the use of health products and nutrients should be viewed rationally.
Sodium In general, the daily sodium intake of diabetic patients should be less than 2300 mg, but the daily intake is less than 1500 mg, even for patients with hypertension.
Trace elements and health supplements For diabetic patients without trace element deficiency, there is no clear evidence that they can benefit from the intake of trace elements or health supplements, but because of the vitamin B12 deficiency caused by taking metformin, it is recommended. Patients taking metformin should be regularly checked for vitamin B12 levels in their bodies, especially in patients with anemia or peripheral neuropathy.
Alcohol and sweeteners In the long run, moderate drinking has no obvious harm to blood sugar control, but hypoglycemia, weight gain and hyperlipidemia may bring certain risks to diabetes management. For patients who are accustomed to drinking sweet drinks, sweetened sweeteners are a better choice than sweetened drinks, but even calorie-free sweeteners should be ingested. In general, it is recommended that diabetic patients drink less or not drink and try to drink boiled water.
In addition to diet management, the Standard also proposes methods for managing weight and lifestyle in diabetic patients.