In the wild, if you encounter a sudden patient or injured person, you should take appropriate first-aid measures according to different situations, and then try to get medical treatment as soon as possible.
First aid principle
In the event of an accident, it is necessary to prioritize and implement the first-aid method; firstly deal with critically ill patients, and then deal with patients with milder disease, in the same patient, first treat the life, then treat the local; observe the scene environment to ensure that they and the injured Safety; make full use of the manpower and material resources available at the site to assist first aid.
Observation before treatment
Before doing the specific treatment, it is necessary to observe the patient’s whole body and master the surrounding conditions. Determine the cause of the injury, the location of the pain, the extent, or close the ear to hear the sound of breathing. Pay particular attention to the color of the face, lips, and skin or confirm the presence or absence of trauma, bleeding, consciousness, and breathing, and carefully observe the fracture, trauma, and vomiting.
Subsequently, choose a specific treatment method, especially for the case of respiratory arrest, coma, massive bleeding, and poisoning, and should be urgently treated urgently, otherwise it will endanger the patient’s life. In the observation of changes in symptoms, the symptoms are worsened and emergency treatment is required according to the first aid method. The site should try to organize the rescue work for the wounded and sick, and the ambulance personnel must have a division of labor and cooperation.
When doing emergency treatment, move the body in the most comfortable way for the patient. If the patient is conscious of coma, care should be taken to ensure that the respiratory tract is unobstructed and that suffocation caused by vomiting is prevented. To ensure a smooth breathing, the patient should be lying flat, and if it hits the head, lie down horizontally. If your face is blue, you need to raise your feet. If your face is red, you need to raise your head slightly. If you have vomiting, you should let your side or prone.
Before handing the patient to the physician, the patient should be kept warm to avoid physical exertion and worsen the symptoms. Then contact the physician, ambulance, and the patient’s family. In principle, the patient should be transported quietly after adequate treatment, depending on the condition of the injury and the surrounding conditions. In the handling, the patient is very tired, rest moderately and regularly, and pay attention to the patient’s condition at any time.
The on-site rescue time is urgent. For the treatment of critically ill patients, we must abide by the principle of first aid. Second, we must grasp the key points and quickly follow the steps below to check patients:
Pat the patient’s shoulder or face and call out in the ear: “Hey, what’s the matter!” to test the reaction, the baby uses a slap on the heel or licks its Hegu, if it can cry, it is conscious.
2. First aid position
The patient’s position should be “sitting on a hard surface.” If the patient is lying on his or her back or on the side, if possible, flip him to the back and place it on a hard surface, such as a wooden bed or floor, to make the heart compression work.
The method of turning over: the rescuer squats on the shoulder and neck of the patient’s side, straightens the two upper limbs toward the head, and then places the lower leg of the rescuer on the proximal shank, the legs cross, and then Hold the patient’s back head and neck with one hand, and hold the patient’s distal armpit with the other hand, so that the head, neck, shoulders, and trunk are integrated, and flipped into the supine position. Finally, the two arms are restored. Put it back on your sides.
3. Open the airway
The rescuer first unfastens the patient’s collar, tie, scarf, etc., and at the same time quickly removes the sludge, clods, sputum, vomit, etc. in the patient’s mouth and nose to facilitate the smooth flow of the respiratory tract.
Due to loss of consciousness, the patient’s tongue muscles are slack, the tongue roots fall, the epiglottis falls, and the head leans forward, which is likely to cause airway obstruction in the throat. Lifting the squat method can lift the mandible and move the throat wall back, thus widening the airway, making the airway open and breathing unobstructed. The rescuer places one hand on the patient’s forehead and presses down, tilting his head back, placing the index and middle fingers of the other hand under the mandible of the ankle, lifting the ankle forward to help the head Yang. The degree of recoil of the head is the correct position between the mandibular angle and the earlobe perpendicular to the ground. The baby’s head can be gently reclined.
Pay attention to clear the foreign body in the mouth, do not take too much time, the entire open airway process should be completed within 3 to 5 seconds, and the airway is always kept clear during the whole process of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
4. See, hear, feel breathing
After the patient’s airway is unblocked, the rescuer uses the method of watching, listening, and feeling to check whether the patient has spontaneous breathing within 3 to 5 seconds. Inspection method: The rescuer uses the ear to stick to the patient’s mouth and nose, and see whether the patient’s chest (or upper abdomen) has undulations; the second listens to the patient’s mouth and nose with or without breathing airflow; and the third feels the presence or absence of airflow to blow the cheek. If the patient does not breathe spontaneously, the rescuer should immediately perform artificial respiration on the patient – mouth-to-mouth (nasal) insufflation 2 times. Each insufflation time is 1 to 1.5 seconds, and the amount of air per blow should be 800 ml.
5. Check the pulse and judge the heartbeat
The rescuer uses the carotid artery or the radial artery to observe whether the patient has a beating and whether the patient has a heartbeat. It should be gently touched during inspection and cannot be pressed. In order to judge accurately, you can touch the bilateral carotid arteries in succession, but it is forbidden to touch both sides at the same time to prevent the blood supply to the brain.
If there is no pulse beat, chest compression can be performed, the extrusion speed is 60-80 times per minute, and the extrusion is 15 times.
The ratio of the squeeze gas to the blow is repeated at 15:2, and it is judged by continuously performing 4 times or 1 minute, and checking the pulse, the recovery of the breath, and the change of the pupil.
6. Emergency hemostasis
If the rescuer has serious trauma, he should also check whether the patient has severe bleeding or not. If there is, he should take emergency hemostasis to avoid death caused by severe bleeding.
7. Protect the spine
In case of serious injury caused by accidental injury or unexpected events, in the field treatment, it is necessary to pay attention to protecting the spine and carry out transportation and transshipment under medical supervision. Avoid further injury to the spine or injury to the spine, causing paraplegia and even death.