Recently, the British and Iranian tanker incidents have brought many British people’s “Persian complexes” back to their hearts. In the era of “Imperial Empire”, it was Persian that provided the fulcrum for Britain’s continental balance policy and guaranteed the fuel supply to the Royal Navy. Behind Persian’s “obedience” is the means by which the UK has been both hard and soft for centuries.
White wolf by “blank treaty” empty gloves
Before the large-scale commercial exploitation of oil, the reason for the strong Persian was its strategic location. Persian in the 18th century has gradually declined, but still controls the vast areas including Central Asia and the Persian Gulf. At that time, the newly emerging Russia was expanding, eroding and gradually annexing Persia in the Indian Ocean. It is an important step for Saudi Arabia to obtain a seaport.
At this time, the United Kingdom has included India and Afghanistan under its rule. Persia is bordered by India and Afghanistan. If Russia conquers Persia, Britain will naturally feel uneasy. At that time, I was staring at Persia, as well as the French emperor Napoleon. Napoleon attempted to weaken Britain by conquering India, and Persia, which borders India, became a stepping stone to the plan.
By the opportunity of the Persian and Russian-Russian rounds of war around Georgia, the British extended an olive branch to Persia in 1800. The Persian dynasty, which lost successively in the war against Russia, immediately seized this life-saving straw and signed the “British Treaty” with Britain in January 1801. The treaty requires Persia not to allow other European troops to pass through the Persian territory, and the British have promised that if Tsarist Russia invades Persia, the United Kingdom will provide weapons and financial assistance. In 1804, it was time for Tsarist Russia to invade Persia again and test the relationship between the British and British alliances. Persia sought help from the United Kingdom under the treaty. However, at this time the United Kingdom is wooing the Russian-Russian anti-French alliance, and the request for assistance to Persia is in full swing. Just as Persia was desperate, France sent “Autumn Wave.” In May 1807, France signed an alliance treaty with Persia. France recognized Persian sovereignty over Georgia and provided weapons and training to Persia. In return, Persia provided the French army with the right to attack India and allowed the French Navy to enter the Persian Gulf. Cut off all relations with the UK.
However, France is faster than the UK. Just two months later, Napoleon concentrated on the United Kingdom, and France and Russia announced a settlement. The Russian army immediately dispatched a large number of troops from Europe to the front line of Persia, and France ignored it.
In 1808, the French predecessor stationed in Persia left Persia and refused to mediate the Bosnian-Russian war. Persia was completely abandoned.
In the past few years, Persia has been played in the hands of the British, French and Russian turns, and the signed covenant has become waste paper. But this is only the first round of Persian bullying. The British quickly found the door again and opened up more favorable conditions than before. In 1809, the British wave re-signed the treaty to form a “permanent alliance”. The British promised to provide Persia with weapons, funds and even fleet assistance, and recognized its sovereignty over the Persian Gulf.
But the United Kingdom, which has gained more rights from Persia, did not give substantial assistance, but merely brokered Ottoman Turkey to form an alliance with Persia. Ironically, in order to end the Georgian war as soon as possible, Russia signed a contract with Osman unilaterally in May 1812, and then concentrated its forces on the general attack on Persia. Persia was betrayed by its allies for the third time. Two months later, there was even worse news: Britain and Russia signed a covenant to form an anti-French alliance. The British also sold out Persia again.
The isolated and unrestrained Persian was violently hit by the Russian army at the end of 1812 and early 1813. The British jumped out at this time, forcing Persia to stop the war with Russia. In October 1813, Persia signed a humiliating “Gurish Peace Treaty” with Russia, ceded a large territory including Georgia, and granted various privileges to Russia. In order to prevent Tsarist Russia from completely controlling Persia, the British forced Persia to sign the Covenant for the third time in 1814. What was stipulated was that the British provided war to Persia, while Persia refused any European countries to use the road to print. London’s attempt In this way, balance the intention of the Russian expansion.
In the process, although the United Kingdom does not seem to get much benefit, it does not cost a lot of effort. With just a few blank treaties, it has successfully put its power into the strategic location of Persia. With the help of the Persian chess piece, Britain used to win over Russia to deal with France. On the other hand, it did not allow the Russian-Russian expansion in Persia to go too far and subtly maintain the balance of Europe.
In 1851, the United Kingdom signed a new treaty with Persia, which stipulated that the British Navy had the right to inspect the merchant ships in the Persian Gulf. The United Kingdom became the “marine police” of the Persian Gulf and its power further increased.
As a “day does not fall empire”, the British nature is not just a slap in the face. Persian and the British-backed Afghan kingdom have repeatedly sinned against the Herat region of Afghanistan, which was originally part of the Persian sphere of influence. On November 1, 1856, on the day of the occupation of Herat by Persia, the British declared war on Persia. At the beginning of 1857, the British army landed in Persia, and successively conquered the important towns such as Ahwaz. Persian was forced to seek peace. On March 14 of that year, the representative of Yingbo signed a peace treaty in Paris. In addition to abandoning the sovereignty requirements of Herat and the entire Afghan region, Persia also leased the important port of Abbas to the pro-British forces.
In 1861, Bahrain, the original minister of Persia, also belonged to the British asylum. At this point, the United Kingdom finally integrated the entire Persian region and the Persian Gulf region into the British sphere of influence by supporting agents, looting, and even personally. Since then, the United Kingdom has almost completely mastered the economic lifeline of Persia. ▲
Inciting coups to protect oil privilege
If the British 19th century intervene in Persian affairs is more geopolitical, then the 20th century is mainly for economic purposes. Because the country has almost no oil production, the focus is on the search for overseas oil. Persia, which has rich oil reserves, has become the number one target.
In 1908, William Darcy, an Englishman who obtained exclusive oil exploration rights from Persia, discovered the first large oil field in northern Persia and immediately established the British Petroleum Company. Because the refining technology is not enough, the quality of the company’s products is inferior and it is quickly caught in a business dilemma. At the crucial moment, the British government personally ended up spending £2.2 million in August 1914 to acquire a 51% stake in British Petroleum. As a result, the United Kingdom monopolizes the Persian oil industry in an official sense, thereby ensuring the energy supply of the British Navy.
The profit of British Petroleum has doubled rapidly, but the dividend paid to the Persian government has not increased. In addition, British Petroleum has its own airport, port, railway and armed forces in Persia, which seriously damages the sovereign and territorial integrity of Persia. The Persian civil dissatisfaction with the British oil company reached its climax after the October Revolution in Russia in 1917. At that time, the new Soviet regime announced the abandonment of Russia’s privilege in Persia. The British took the opportunity to force Persia to sign a new treaty in an attempt to completely control Persia, which provoked a strong protest from Persia. The old and shameful Britain is determined to “change the horse.” In 1921, the young military officer Lisa Khan successfully launched a coup with the support of the United Kingdom. In 1925, Lisa Khan officially abolished the last king of the dynasty, crowned the throne and established the Pahlavi dynasty.
Lisa Khan, who has a strong nationalist mind, is unwilling to become a British ape. He first took back the autonomy of tariffs, the right to issue currency and the control of the Indo-European Telegraph Bureau, and finally launched an impact on key oil control rights. In November 1932, Persia announced the abolition of the agreement signed with Darcy that year. The angry British rushed into the Persian Gulf and threatened to take “all necessary measures” to safeguard Britain’s interests. Under British military pressure and the mediation of the League of Nations, Persia reached a new agreement with British Petroleum in 1933, partially cutting the privilege of the British oil company in Persia and increasing the tax paid to the Persian government. Although Reza Khan’s rebellion failed to achieve complete victory, it was the first step.
After the outbreak of World War II, Iran (Persia changed its name to Iran in 1935) declared neutrality, but the position of pro-German caused anxiety in Britain and the Soviet Union. In August 1941, the United States and the Soviet Union jointly invaded Iran. The British who supported Reza Khan for his own benefit now overthrew him for the same reason. Reza Khan was forced to abdicate and went into exile. Under the British bayonet, Iran spent its World War II years.
After the Second World War, the country with a decline in national power began a global strategic contraction. The time for Iranian nationalists to restore national dignity and expel British power has arrived. In April 1951, the Iranian politician Mossah, who was nationalized, was elected as the prime minister by the parliament, and immediately announced the nationalization of the British and Iraqi oil companies. In August 1953, the British government reapplied, and the United States incited the Iranian coup, and the Moss Taiwan government was overthrown.
In the subsequent negotiations on the new Iranian oil agreement, the Iranian National Oil Company, although nominally owning all the oil fields and facilities in Iran, is solely responsible for the operation of the International Petroleum Foundation. However, only 40% of the shares of Yingyi Petroleum, which originally monopolized Iranian oil, were owned by US companies, and the rest were owned by Shell and French Petroleum.
Points, the British forces were clearly excluded.
In 1971, the British army withdrew from the Persian Gulf region. In the years that followed, BP did nothing. In 1979, the Islamic revolution broke out in Iran and the oil resources were once again nationalized. The United Kingdom lost its last influence in Iran, and the painstaking efforts of the past two hundred years have vanished. The contradictions between the two sides and even hatred have continued.