In Rome, people erected monuments in the place where Bruno was executed.
In the middle of the first millennium BC, it was the “axis of the axis” of human civilization: the Greek sages explored the origin, the Buddha argued empty, and the Laozi theory.
After the demise of the Western Roman Empire in 476, the classical era ended and Western society entered the “medieval.” It is generally believed that the Middle Ages were the era of theology (Christianity) and the doctrinal hegemony of the scholasticism, and it was dark.
In the 15th and 18th centuries, the Renaissance and Enlightenment were popular in the European continent, and the natural sciences emerged. To this day, its “new hegemony status” has not been said.
However, in the course of history, although the natural sciences are unstoppable, there is no such thing as a smooth path. The outbreak of the French Revolution meant some kind of failure of the Enlightenment.
It also wants to crouch and cross the “romantic 19th century” until the 20th century is a major event known to the present, and the natural sciences have gained a foothold.
Seeking truth, being pragmatic, and stressing logic… positivism has enabled natural science to expand its territory. Human beings have got rid of God’s creation and God’s revelation. They are no longer pinned on God’s one-off, permanent liberation, but they solve their own problems. Although this is slow, it is most effective.
Perhaps one day, the map of the natural sciences will replace the sky set by the past theologians and moralists, and replace it with a new starry sea.
When people look back at the starting point, they will find a “star”, which is the heliocentric theory.
He said that it is also called “earth movement”, and Copernicus is not the first to discover people.
In the last year of his life, in 1543, Copernicus’s body had been tortured for a long time and was dying. Despite this, he still dared not publish his own book “The Theory of Celestial Operation.”
Under the persuasion of a friend, including a red leader, Copernicus’s book was printed at the time of death. Copernicus stroked the printed book on the hospital bed and died a few hours later.
This fear originated from the Holy See, which occupied the hegemonic status at that time. Under the system of “political and religious unity”, it controlled the real power of the European continent. The Theory of the Operation of Celestial Body is contrary to its ideology.
Or in the case of expediency, in the preface, Copernicus claimed to dedicate this book to Pope Paul III, hoping to gain his support and shelter. He wrote: “I am annoyed that philosophers cannot understand more precisely the movements of the world machines that the best and most dexterous Creator has created for us.”
He also found the philosopher’s point of view and “endorsed” his theory. First, in the writings of the ancient Roman politician and the speaker Cicero, there is such a record: Hesetas envisioned the earth moving. Then in the history of ancient Greece, the Ferraris of the Pythagoreans believed that the earth, like the sun and the moon, spun around a slanting circle around a fire.
In other words, heliocentric theory has long existed in ancient Greece. It is not difficult to imagine that the philosophers of the classical period had argued for this.
It was only in the Middle Ages that the dominant position was Ptolemy’s geocentric theory.
There are two reasons. Most importantly, the geocentric theory just coincides with the creation of the Creator in the Christian Bible. Before and after the AD, it was the rise of Christianity and the gradual expansion of influence. The geocentric theory said that this doctrine was ideologyized by politicians. .
Another reason why the geocentric theory has occupied an authoritative position for 18 centuries is that it coincides with the astronomical phenomena observed at that time. Therefore, when it comes to geocentricity, the product called religion is also a “defamation case.”
In Ptolemy’s doctrine, the average wheel is set to explain the “fixed” celestial body circular motion, and the celestial bodies surrounding the earth movement are also far and near, and he set this round to explain. This was the most rigorous and precise astronomical theory at the time.
In the eighth year after Bruno’s death, the telescope was invented. He could not foresee the infinity of the universe.
However, Copernicus was involved in the revision of a calendar (there was a religious reform at the time) and found the omission of this theory. He found that the geocentric theory could not explain even the “return year”. When it comes to these problems, it is either avoided or added to a concept that seems unnecessary.
Therefore, Copernicus used 36 years to observe the celestial movement, and eventually became the “celestial body operation theory.” This set of books deals with a large number of data and formulas and is a more sophisticated system.
Among the “heritage” of Copernicus, the most precious thing is not his claim to heliocentric theory, but his empirical attitude as a researcher in discussing facts, and his strong patience and logic.
Even through various “eyes”, “Astronomy” was finally published, and it was quickly banned by the Holy See.
Illustration of the Ptolemy heart system. The outermost text reads “The Empire of Heaven, the dwelling place of God and all the chosen people.”
However, “fire” has been sown, and many scientists still study this proposition. At the beginning of the 17th century, Copernicus had been dead for half a century, and the Italian scientist Galileo really expanded his heart.
This is closely related to the invention of the telescope. As an important figure in textbooks, Galileo is a well-known identity as a mechanic and a physicist. In fact, before he was 44 years old, he did focus on mechanics research and discovered free fall motion and buoyancy laws.
In 1608, Galileo researched and invented the telescope under an unexpected revelation and began his astronomy research career.
With the ban on so-called feudal superstitions, the political persecution movement has become popular.
In 1600, 52-year-old Bruno was burned to death in Rome’s Campo de’ Fiori
Galileo discovered the correctness of the Copernican doctrine and found limitations. In the Copernican doctrine, only four of the planets that made a circular motion around the sun were observed at the time. Copernicus therefore argues that in the circle that expands outward in a circle, the “eighth heaven” is the vast starry sky, they are constant and immobile.
Galileo discovered more planets and found that there are also four planets around Jupiter that rotate around it (13 in modern science). He further argues that the sun is not immobile, it does the same circular motion and spin motion as the earth.
According to Galileo’s discovery, Kepler predicted the existence of Neptune and was later confirmed. These discoverers later became the “giants” that Newton said. Newton stood on their shoulders and put forward the classic physics theory, which opened an era.
It is worth pondering that in the textbook, the scientist who mentioned the theory of expanding Copernicus has a name called Bruno.
In 1600, Bruno, 52, was burned to death at the Flower Square in Rome.
Because of this case, he was described as a propagator of the Copernican doctrine. As mentioned in the textbook, Bruno further expanded the Copernican theory and developed the theory of infinite universe, saying that the solar system is only part of the vast universe. Bruno himself, as a result of adhering to such advanced theories and scientific claims, was hostile to the Holy See and ultimately devoted himself to heroism.
The reputation of “the first martyr in the history of science” even made Bruno’s light over Copernicus and Galileo.
But this narrative has many problems. Most notably, the telescope was invented in the eighth year after Bruno’s death. He could not foresee the infinity of the universe.
Historians have re-examined Bruno because of all sorts of doubts. They found that Bruno’s doctrine of “numerous worlds in an infinite universe” may not come from scientific research, but from his other theological proposition: Hermes’s spell system.
The Hermes tradition is a mystic magical tradition, mixed with ancient Greek, ancient Egyptian, Hebrew, Persian and other religious cultures. It aims to obtain an answer to the question of the eternity of the universe given by God under the guidance of the mystical power.
People who believe in Hermesism and try to trace the hidden interrelationships and inductive forces behind things can be called wizards in a certain sense. Bruno is such a “warner.”
Hermes tradition, closer to ancient Egyptian religion, worship the sun. The heliocentric theory fits this need. It can be said that Bruno insisted on propagating and carrying forward the heliocentric theory, which is a kind of “takenism.”
Back in the era when Bruno was in, his claims and the scientific events that were taking place at the time were more interesting than the descriptions in the textbooks.
When Bruno was burned to death, Galileo was still conducting mechanics research. 1600 is the turn of the century, the Renaissance will go, and the Enlightenment is about to open the “golden age” of the natural sciences for two centuries. In this context, Bruno is full of inevitable tragic fate and has become a clear footnote in the transformation of the times.
Under the Renaissance, the spirit of humanism urged the reform of ancient religions that ruled more than a decade. In this movement, humanity should return to the correct classical spirit. Endless paintings, sculptures and music reinvent the philosophical form and call for the human spirit. In other words: out of the Middle Ages.
What Bruno is calling is another classical spirit, the aforementioned Hermes tradition.
In this pluralistic (perhaps progressive) trend of thought, the Holy See must have felt that its rule of power is being threatened. The old set of world views is facing a run-down. In the era of theism and the theory of truth, it means that the legitimacy of the rule of power is shaken.
Inheriting the origins of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, “Ionian myths” influenced the thinkers of the time. In other words, the origin of the world is “one”, then this “one” can explain all phenomena, including natural, social, and human. In the Holy See, this “one” is the creation of God, which is the root of its rule.
In the Renaissance, the Pope, whose legitimacy was questioned, began the “Women’s Movement” in the mid-15th century. These various theories and theories that returned to the world with the help of the spirit of “Chonggu” were not the forces that later overthrew the religious rule, but at that time, the Pope was the most fearful and hostile.
The “Women’s Movement”, which spans three centuries, basically coincides with the Renaissance era. With the ban on so-called feudal superstitions, the political persecution movement has become popular. Most of the witches who are women are punished by fire or other cruel punishment.
Whether it was due to expediency or the limitations of the times, Copernicus and Galileo did not deny the Creator in their doctrine. Copernicus praised the creativity and perfection of the Creator with “The Theory of Celestial Operation”, as did Galileo.
In contrast, Bruno committed “two taboos.”
He introduced the heliocentric theory, propagating the Hermes tradition and shaking the “one” of the Holy See. In addition, as a wizard, he also naturally took the blacklist of the “Women’s Movement”. This can explain that although he has no scientific discoveries and his arguments are the most illogical and creative among the three, he was burned to death by the highest punishment of the Holy See.
Of course, after the natural sciences returned to the mainstream in the 20th century, Bruno, who burned the fire, as a distinctive symbol, was included in the narrative of the history of science. He became a martyr of science. He once embraced the doctrine of privilege and was interpreted as a forced livelihood to cater to the tastes of the mighty. However, he was dismissed by political opinions and was put into prison by political opponents, which was interpreted as a plan of the Holy See.
History is written like this. I don’t know if Bruno is lucky or unfortunate?