On May 2, 1519, the world-famous Da Vinci died. This year is just the 500th anniversary.
In the half century after adulthood, Da Vinci has made great achievements in science, machinery, medicine, archaeology, architecture, military, water conservancy, geology, and art. Compared with his artistic achievements, Da Vinci’s scientific achievements are not well known to the world, but this does not cover his scientific accomplishments. He even calls him a “scientist who has been mistaken by art”. .
a modern world’s prophet
Mention Leonardo di Piero da Vinci (Italian name Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci), most people will think of his artistic achievements.
Indeed, as a leading figure in the European art world during the Renaissance, he and Michelangelo and Raphael were called “three masters of Italian art.” His work “Mona Lisa” is now the treasure of the Louvre town hall in Paris, and “The Last Supper” is relished by many art critics. The novelist Dan Brown even got inspiration from it and created the famous novel Da Vinci Code.
“Da Vinci’s Devil” is an adventure drama co-produced by Anglo-American, telling the secret story of Da Vinci’s unknown in the youth of Florence. The protagonist in the play is a superhero living in the Middle Ages, which combines historical stories of truth and play.
The most feared thing in this world is that “others are more talented than you, and you are more diligent than you.” What many people overlook is that Da Vinci’s achievements in the natural sciences are no less than artistic achievements, and he has advanced scientific ideas that affect many people who are engaged in scientific research after the Renaissance. Including the later great scientist Galileo.
In fact, Da Vinci is an all-rounder who excels in science, engineering, and creation. He is the first scientific master who truly thinks about the mechanics of people and the world. He is one of the most knowledgeable giants in history. First, it is a prophet of the modern world, whose manuscript is called a real encyclopedia of science and technology in the 15th century.
Da Vinci’s Sketch of Vitruvian Man
Get rid of metaphysics, scientifically assume
Da Vinci’s contribution to science is, first and foremost, to advocate the connection between theory and practice.
For a long time, the development of natural science in Europe has been stagnant, mainly because local scientific research pursues “references”. Researchers are not concerned with real-world problems, but are constantly looking for various propositions in various so-called “authoritative documents” and then studying them. Any problem that is not mentioned in the literature will be dismissed as a “pseudo-proposition.”
At the same time, researchers have a “historical” research method, which has also led to the long-term stagnation of European natural science. In order to show “superior people,” many researchers have retouched the already-deprecated theories with religious-spoken words, resulting in various “outcomes” that can only be circulated in very small circles.
There are more than 6,000 manuscripts of the current Da Vinci manuscript, many of which have been confirmed.
Da Vinci used his influence to criticize this situation. He pointed out that “the theory is the biggest misfortune from practice”, calling on researchers to liberate from the study without any practical significance, pay more attention to the real problem, and not to assume various non-existent problems in a virtual environment of imaginary conditions. His thoughts were quickly welcomed by young researchers who were oppressed by “authority.” The British philosopher Bacon later summed up his theory and formed a relatively complete methodology of natural science research, thus laying the theoretical foundation for the explosive development of modern European science.
Da Vinci’s other contribution to science is to use scientific inspiration found in real life to form more reasonable scientific assumptions. Da Vinci graduated from the Italian Institute of Technology with a systematic education in natural sciences. His scientific assumptions are rigorous and close to reality, which is of great enlightenment. The typical case is Da Vinci’s research and thinking on the human body.
In the era of Da Vinci, scientific research is generally based on the theory of metaphysical religion. Researchers also have a natural business bias of “first-class personnel research theory, second-rate personnel research practice”. However, Da Vinci used a variety of means to escape the church surveillance and personally dissected dozens of bodies. Through anatomy, he has a deeper understanding of the human body structure and has accurately depicted various organs, bones, muscles, etc. in the human body.
In the age when there was no research on the theory, data and literature of the human circulatory system, Da Vinci gradually formed a mature understanding of the human body structure through his own anatomical practice, and proposed various medical theories. He pointed out that human organs can be replaced to relieve or even cure the symptoms caused by some organ failure, and on this basis, the method of heart repair is designed. But subject to religious academic authority, peer discrimination, and the mad worship of academic papers, data, and core journals, Da Vinci’s great discovery in the medical field has long been considered “no fantasy of data and literature support. “After 2005, a British doctor passed clinical practice to prove the correctness of Da Vinci’s method of heart repair.
But if Da Vinci’s anatomy of the human body is simply understood as medical research, it is a big mistake. Da Vinci realized very early on that there is great interrelationship between the disciplines of natural sciences. The future of mechanistic research will surely have a tendency to “personalization”, and if it is necessary to create machinery that is as flexible as human body, it must be profound. Understand the human body. Therefore, he deeply understands the various structures of the human body through anatomy, and is also studying the principle of human body operation. On this basis, he proposed the possibility of manufacturing “mechanics”, which became the prototype of robot manufacturing.
According to some informal historical records, Da Vinci used a simple method to create a “mechanical person.” According to records, he uses gears as a power device, allowing the robot to swing his arms up and down; then using a transmission rod to connect the head and power unit, so that the manipulator’s jaw can move; another device that allows the robot to issue some Original sound.
Promote science and serve the society
Due to complex historical reasons, although many of Da Vinci’s bold scientific assumptions have not been applied in his lifetime, this does not prevent him from turning part of the scientific research into a concrete service to society.
Da Vinci began to pay attention to the role of water conservancy construction in agriculture. In an era when agricultural production was still relatively primitive, agricultural production was very unstable, and famine often occurred in the face of drought. To this, Da Vinci devoted himself to the construction of artificial canals to introduce native river water into irrigated farmland. Fortunately, he got practical opportunities in the construction of the Arno River water conservancy project. Under his auspices, an artificial canal was built between Milan and Pavia, and based on this, a relatively complete irrigation system was formed. Many of the key projects, such as sluice gates, reservoirs and dams, were designed and directed by Da Vinci. This irrigation system has been tested and has become an important guarantee for local agricultural production.
In addition, Da Vinci promoted the development of geography by studying geological changes. According to the phenomenon of ancient marine fossils found in the mountains, he believes that the earth’s crust has been changing for several years, and the water and land often change, which indirectly proves that the earth should be closer to a circle. He used a number of simple scientific instruments to calculate the Earth’s diameter at around 7,000 miles. His conclusions were not known to many people at the time, but many years later, with the advent of the era of geography, especially after Magellan’s voyage around the world, his geographical conclusions were considered quite predictable.
Da Vinci’s achievements in science are not as compelling as his artistic achievements, many of which have even been questioned for a long time. But he still carefully recorded every scientific discovery as a manuscript in a very primitive way. There are more than 6,000 manuscripts of the current Da Vinci manuscript, many of which have been confirmed.
Da Vinci used his life to prove that scientific research needs to be practice-oriented. Even if “practice should be based on good theory”, the theory is still the biggest misfortune. Da Vinci not only left a lot of scientific heritage for future generations, but more importantly, he left the method and spirit to correctly explore the scientific world, so that future generations will not lose their way after exhausting his scientific foresight. This makes him more difficult to be forgotten by the world.