After staying in Beijing for 20 years, Xu Fusheng has moved more than a dozen times because of the need for demolition. “From the fourth ring to the fifth ring, I was immediately taken to the sixth ring.”
However, every time he was “moved,” Xu Fusheng was very happy. The businessman who did construction waste recycling said: “If you want to dismantle, there will be business.”
In the eyes of Xu Fusheng, construction waste is also divided into three or six: The dilapidated doors and windows, foam boards, copper and aluminum iron discarded at the construction site are all good things; the muck and the broken bricks are real garbage, “even we are ruined. Don’t want it, who else wants?”
The answer is land.
Dr. Gao Shiyang, a professor of geography at the University of California, Berkeley, spent nearly a year investigating the recycling of construction waste in Beijing. He came up with an astonishing amount of data: in Beijing, 40 million tons of construction waste is produced each year, less than 40% of the recycling is used, and the rest are disposed of by landfill.
This figure is much higher than the annual output of 7 million tons of domestic waste in Beijing. In other words, just as we are worried about the disposal of domestic waste, construction waste is like an unconstrained beast, quietly engulfing our city.
”No one is bound.” Gao Shiyang repeatedly stressed. According to his investigation, only 10% of construction waste will be transported to designated places of consumption, and the rest will be dumped at will or transported to illegally operated landfills for disposal.
Every year, there is like a big earthquake.
In 2003, Xu Fusheng discovered that the amount and demand for construction waste increased at the same time, shifting the focus of his business from domestic waste to construction waste.
Later, he heard that the year was the year of urban construction around the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Since that year, the annual production of construction waste in Beijing has surged from 30 million tons to 40 million tons, exceeding the number of years in the UK and France.
In this regard, Professor Liu Xinkui, deputy secretary-general of the Beijing Urban Management Association, explained that the Great Leap Forward of Urbanization is the main cause of construction waste.
“With the advancement of urbanization, the generation of construction waste is an inevitable phenomenon.” Liu Xinkui told reporters, “But the question is, is it necessary to use such high output of construction waste as a development cost?”
In a report written by Cui Suping, deputy dean of the School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, “The Status and Recycling of Construction Waste in Beijing”, the reporter found that construction waste generated due to demolition of old urban areas and municipal engineering relocation It accounts for more than 75% of the total construction waste, and construction waste caused by accidental collapse and building decoration accounts for about 20% of the total.
According to industry standards, different sources are directly related to the amount of construction waste generated. Calculated for every 10,000 square meters, the construction of such a large area of the house will produce 500 tons to 600 tons of garbage, if the old building of the same area is removed, the amount of garbage generated will be 13 times more, up to 7,000 tons to 12,000 tons.
Liu Xinkui pointed out that many old urban buildings have not reached the standard service life of 50 years, and the functional replacement required for urbanization can be completed through internal transformation. “100% can be done technically, but it is difficult to achieve in reality.” Liu Xinkui said.
Professor Zhou Lijun from the School of Architecture of Harbin Institute of Technology has deep feelings. His research team spent a year designing and renovating a historical block, which can transform residential areas into commercial areas without hurting one soldier. In the end, the program died in the hands of the developers, and the historic district became a department store.
”There are only a few millions of ancient walls that have been left behind. They say that this represents the protection of the neighborhood.” Zhou Lijun recalled, “There are no other things left. In fact, nothing can be left.”
“Leaving the construction garbage mountain that nobody cares about!” Gao Shiyang showed his photographs with anger, and the shattered bricks that were dumped at random became a hill, like a city that had just suffered an earthquake.
In the course of a field exploration, Gao Shiyang met the CCTV film crew. They planned to take pictures of the rescue in the earthquake and chose the location to be in the garbage dump.
If calculated according to the amount of construction waste generated, Beijing is like a major earthquake every year. In 1995, the earthquake in Kobe, Japan, produced 18.5 million tons of construction waste. In 1999, the earthquake in Taiwan caused 20 million tons of construction waste. The only “unmatched” was the Wenchuan earthquake that produced 170 million tons of construction waste.
”Plus Guangzhou and Shanghai, it will not be much worse!” Gao Shiyang made a little joke, but then tightened his face. “In fact, they are disasters.”
5 people and 40 million tons of construction waste fighting
Smuggling construction waste is the work of Qin Wei.
During the day, he and the foreman at the construction site talked about the price. “Look at the distance, 200 yuan for a car and 20 yuan for an acquaintance.” One night, the second-hand truck he bought for 40,000 yuan will be on the Fifth Ring Road. , between the construction site and the landfill. The so-called landfills are contracted by local villagers. The process of consumption is very simple. “It will be done when you pour into the pit.” If it goes smoothly, Qin Wei can pour 3 cars a night.
”If it is caught by the city management, the income of one month will be lost. But other places are still fine, and the urban management of the East Fifth Ring Road is strictly checked. Fortunately they need money, not those things.” Qin Wei revealed .
As early as 2004, the Beijing Municipal Administration Commission issued the “Notice on Strengthening the Management of Urban and Rural Domestic Waste and Construction Waste.” The notification requires that the construction waste generation unit shall go through the waste disposal procedures at the waste management department in the construction area where the construction site is located, and declare the vehicle, and transport the muck to the designated disposal site according to the designated route within the prescribed time, and then Carry out landfill and other treatments.
However, in the investigation, Gao Shiyang discovered that there are only five staff members in the Dregs Office of the Municipal Waste and Dregs Management Office. “This is a battle between 5 people and 40 million tons of construction waste. How to win?”
A contractor has disclosed the unspoken rules of the industry to the Chen Jiaxuan teaching aid of the Beijing Institute of Civil Engineering and Architecture. Due to the limited carrying capacity, more than 20 regular consumption sites designated by Beijing Municipality are not willing to absorb construction waste. Since the above-mentioned large construction sites must sign contracts with designated consumption sites, the two sides reached a tacit agreement under them. The contract is signed, but the consumption field only receives a small fee, and the exchange condition is that the site will absorb it on its own.”
A black construction waste collection chain was formed. Chen Jiayu is very conservative in estimating that more than 90% of construction waste is not consumed through formal channels. Even Qin Wei feels that there is a lot of garbage. He told reporters that “there are a lot of pits waiting to be numbered.” Even those landfills are no longer landfilled, but they are hired to transport these construction wastes further afield.
“These construction wastes are like time bombs.” Liu Xinkui, who once hosted the “Capital Environmental Construction Planning Project”, expressed her concern.
Due to the lack of effective classification, construction adhesives, paints and paints in construction waste are not only difficult to degrade, but also contain harmful heavy metal elements. The long-buried bottom will cause groundwater pollution, and will also damage the soil structure and cause surface settlement.
The biggest risk is that it takes up a lot of land. According to Chen Jiaxuan’s calculation, each 10,000 tons of construction waste covers an area of 2.5 mu. In the next 20 years, China’s construction waste growth will enter a peak period, which will directly aggravate the conflict between people and land in the process of urbanization.
“Urbanization is a process of expansion. One day, when we need to build on land that is being landfilled by construction, the construction cost will be greatly improved.” Liu Hang, deputy chief engineer of Beijing Institute of Civil Engineering and Architecture, said. In the absence of planning, landfilled construction waste cannot be used as a foundation at all, and it faces the problem of re-transfer of construction waste.
Jinxiu Jiangshan is about to become a garbage mountain
When Xu Fusheng was still pondering whether it was profitable to recycle construction waste, Wu Jianmin had begun research and development of the construction waste recycling project. According to the prior art, more than 95% of construction waste can be recycled by technical means.
In 2003, Wu Jianmin, who started his business in sandstone, invested 60 million yuan to build the first construction waste treatment plant in Beijing and built a production line that digested 1 million tons of construction waste annually.
What makes Wu Jianmin unprepared is that the source of raw materials has become the biggest problem. Since the factory is built outside the Sixth Ring Road, few transport vehicles are willing to bear excessive freight rates, and are more accustomed to landfill construction waste. If you bear the freight yourself, you will lose more.
In the past seven years, Wu Jianmin has lost more than 10 million yuan and the factory has stopped production. Today, the only thing that makes him feel “there is hope in the future” is that the news broadcast “is still promoting the circular economy.”
It is said that there are more than 20 similar construction waste treatment enterprises in the country, and most of them are facing difficulties. Compared with more than 90% of the construction waste recycling rate in Korea and Japan, the recycling rate of construction waste in China is less than 5%.
Another set of data is that China’s annual construction waste is about 300 million tons, and after 50 to 100 years, this figure will increase to 2.6 billion tons.
What makes Chen Jiaxuan unforgettable is that when he heard that South Korea was promoting the “Building Waste Regeneration Promotion Law,” an expert joked with him: “There is no compulsory implementation of construction waste resources, and the three thousand miles will become Three thousand miles of garbage is coming.”
Professor Liu Xinkui told reporters that in Beijing’s urban planning system, the cost of construction waste is not well included in the calculation of urban operating costs. “Building a house is a matter for the construction committee, and construction waste is a matter for the municipal city committee.” “The mayor is not the same.”
”Actually, the right way, we walked, just forgot.” In the course of the investigation, Gao Shiyang discovered that before 1978, the city bricks that were demolished during the urban construction process were allocated by the Planning Bureau, first of all to be allocated to the construction. The required units are reused.
At that time, they were called to dismantle old materials, not construction waste. Gao Shiyang insisted that the establishment of the land market in 1988 made construction waste a municipality, and land development became the focus of urban development.
“Construction waste is the problem of money!” Xu Fusheng calculated with his fingers. “You can pay attention to your money, you can’t make money, and of course nobody cares.”
Two months later, Xu Fusheng had to move again. The place where he lives now is classified as “50 villages in the city to be demolished.” This also means that the peak season of his business is coming again. Only this time, Xu Fusheng is a bit mixed.
”It’s a bit farther, and the freight for scrap can be increased.”