We all know that it is impossible to ignore Socrates when studying philosophy. Socrates’ greatest characteristic is to create a kind of cross-examination method in education.
When you hear others talk about what kind of concept, you have to ask him to clearly define what he means by this concept.
For example, if a person feels that he is very scared, you can discuss with him and ask him to explain what the so-called ” fear” is and whether the fear he is facing now comes from outside, from inside, or a situation caused by the combination of the two.
In fact, people live in the world, as long as you start thinking, emotional interference will automatically reduce; It’s like you have a lot of problems in your heart. It’s much better after you say it.
So when we do philosophical consultation, besides listening, we should also be able to find the right questions and ask others to define them in terms of appropriate concepts.
Because we usually have unnecessary troubles in some vague ideas.
For example, if a person says he feels wronged, then we can ask him to explain what injustice is.
Is he the only one in this world to be wronged?
Many people have been wronged.
The biggest grievance is, for example, when you see Confucius traveling around the world after he was 55 years old, and being ridiculed as a lost dog, but Confucius himself thinks he is obeying destiny, does he not feel wronged?
Socrates lived to be 70, was wronged and sentenced to death.
Jesus lived 33 years and was crucified and died.
In other words, these people you know, they look special in all aspects and are still wronged.
Therefore, being wronged, misunderstood by others and making you feel afraid are normal phenomena in life.
Therefore, it is important that you try to analyze: who is the one who wronged you?
What does this person have to do with you?
Why should he give you injustice?
Sometimes the speaker is careless and the listener is intentional.
The speaker did not know that it would hurt others, but the hearer felt as if he had been wronged.
Or that he is venting his emotions, when his emotions are excited, he takes me as the object of venting;
But this does not mean that I am really wrong.
Therefore, it is important that I try to release the focus of ” self”.
What is meant by ” releasing the focus from the self”?
For example, many people are the same as me, this is not for me alone, just have such a special feeling.
On the other hand, you can lengthen the time.
For example, do you think that ten years later, twenty years later, when you get old in the future or when your life comes to an end, you will still feel the same way about the injustice suffered today?
In other words, all these are tests. Its purpose is to let you be more cautious about what you say and do, correct what you have and encourage what you don’t have.
Because I can only change myself in the end. I have no way to change anyone else. I have to be responsible for myself and let others take responsibility for himself.
So I really don’t have to pay too much attention to my emotional distress caused by others.
Therefore, this is a cross-examination method.
But induction is also used in it.
For example, everyone else is like this, giving many examples to illustrate that there is no justice in the world.
Also used deductive method, for example, you first define what injustice is, and then you can apply it.
At the same time, dialectics is also used. For example, it is emphasized that people will change in 10 years, east of the river and west of the river.
Today we are at what age, what kind of situation, wronged, then in the future?
When we stand in a higher and better position, will we let others suffer such injustice?
Therefore, in this process of continuous dialectic between positive and negative, you look at it from the front and you look at it from the other side.
For example, we are the children of our parents since we were young, and we are now the parents of our children. Is this not experienced from every position and angle?
Why don’t you change your angle and position?
You will feel differently about your current situation.
II philosophical consultation
However, when it comes to philosophical consultation, of course, it is not so simple. We use backchat to talk to other people and solve the problem like chatting.
It is relatively easy for ordinary people to accept the ideas of some great figures, even those in great classics.
I think of one thing. In 1986, I went to the United States to attend a conference on religion.
During the group discussion, there was a woman in my group who was about 40 years old. I was a little younger than her.
When introducing herself, she mentioned that she was a leader.
I was very surprised when a 40 – year – old woman became a leader. I asked her what was going on.
She said that she lived in Texas in the southern United States. In her village, she was the only one who attended college, so she returned to her hometown after graduation.
On sundays, people in the village say that when sundays come, we don’t have any churches, priests or priests. can you enlighten us?
The lady said, well, it’s Sunday anyway.
She started looking for a classroom and many people came to listen.
She said that there were three books on her desk: the first Bible, the second Book of Changes and the third Tao Te Ching.
I can’t believe that she used three classics, two of which are Chinese, the Book of Changes and the Tao Te Ching.
Because when she was in college, she took courses in this field and knew a little about it.
Later, I used this as an important reference when she introduced the truth of life.
We often hear a saying that has its reason: monks from far away can chant sutras.
There is a book of changes or Tao te ching on your desk. of course it has English translation.
If you read a few words, these people will think that this is what the ancient sage of the east said, and he will immediately feel very reasonable.
He regards this as the universal standard, and then pulls up the personal special encounter. From that point of view, it is easy to dispel his current troubles.
Because he found that his perplexity is universal and is not limited by time and space. This has long been the case and the lessons given by others are targeted.
Therefore, when we apply philosophy consulting business to specific operations, we must know that we must first understand the words and deeds of many philosophers, especially some important key points in theory.
In this way, when discussing with others, it is easier for others to make sense.
On the other hand, apart from clarifying the concept, there is also the setting of a judgment standard.
For example, if a person has such an emotional reaction, you have to ask him, what concept do you come from?
After the clarification, you can discuss further. How did you judge this matter?
Why do you think it is fair?
How is it called injustice?
How do you call being betrayed and betrayed?
Or how is filial piety or unfilial?
Who set the standard? Why is it so decided?
After you understand it, you will know that I should gradually establish my own values at this time.
Therefore, when a person makes a judgment, he needs a standard of value, and this time he will set a judgment standard as an explanation. Of course, there are a lot of considerations when it comes to the decision.
For example, in the simplest case, are you happy? Are you happy?
For words like happiness and happiness, you must have your own criteria for judgment, that is, you must have your own values.
Otherwise, if you use other people’s standards, you will never reach them, and it will be a misunderstanding.
Isn’t that too bad? Therefore, after clarifying the concept, you should set the judgment standard.
The most difficult and highest level of philosophical consultation is to construct a system, which is equivalent to my having a complete set of outlook on life.
Philosophy is called lovemaking wisdom. Wisdom must be complete and fundamental. It includes a person’s entire life, from birth to end, with a complete understanding. Only in this way can one give meaning to his life.
Therefore, when conducting philosophical consultation, we should not worry.
Generally speaking, it has very rich materials in meditation.
We know from the American lady mentioned by way of example that she is good at using ancient eastern classics.
For us, we learn western philosophy, and we also find that many students, like me, feel that some ideas put forward by westerners deserve further consideration, as if they have their different time and space backgrounds, but what they say can also hit some deep wishes in our hearts.
That is, we have indeed changed a pair of glasses to see the universe, life and many things more clearly and definitely, at least in contrast with our own.
Therefore, we often mention the contrast between China and the west in the course, and how Confucianism and Taoism can compare with the west.
II start thinking
Basically, if one is willing to start thinking, the problem will be solved in half.
Because thinking is to let a person take a step back, not only to stop being passively disturbed by emotions, but to take the initiative to think seriously and actively: what should I do in the face of this situation?
In fact, there is nothing new under the sun.
No matter how complicated and tangled you encounter today, and even what you feel terrible and fearful, basically some people have encountered it, even to an even greater extent.
On the other hand, many things in this world can make you have the power of consciousness only when you are troubled, which is what Buddhism calls ” leaving worry without bodhi”.
Bodhi is wisdom.
So don’t be afraid of these troubles, these troubles, but we must remember to clarify the concept, set the judgment standard and construct the system.
It is not easy to construct a system, because it will require you to find a complete and fundamental understanding, which may eventually involve the origin and destination of all things in the universe and the fundamental problem of life.
Therefore, when we introduce western philosophy, we will discuss further what westerners call ” eternal philosophy” in the last week.
In fact, eternal philosophy is necessary for people in any era and anywhere, but whether it can be constructed depends on everyone’s own experience.
Finally, we should emphasize one point. The so-called philosophical consultation does not mean just talking to others. It seems that I am a bit quicker in response and I can quote the classics, not so much.
Basically, I want to have a complete understanding of the thoughts of some famous western philosophers, and then let this philosopher replace us to face such problems and challenges and provide a complete understanding. Otherwise, if one only relies on one’s casual and impromptu reaction, the effect will be very limited.
Therefore, if you say that at this time, you can have some key points about everyone’s thoughts, such as philosophers from Socrates to Spinoza, we often take them as some proverbs to explain, and the students can probably master them.
Taking this as the focus is tantamount to bringing this person into the philosopher’s entire ideological system, and his understanding and experience must be more profound.