How does philosophy teach people to be noble?

In recent years, there have been more and more people who really like philosophy around me. They have leaders who have successful careers, some entrepreneurs who are prosperous in business, some are young people who are full of vigor, and of course some “peoples”, plus One of the real feelings of Fudan University students who are “educated” and fall in love with philosophy is that the real need for philosophy has emerged in our lives today. This kind of feeling is undoubtedly very comfortable for me as a person who walks “black” on the path of philosophy. This kind of arbitrariness is not to say that in the lonely life, there will be a few “passers” (because for those who really like philosophy, they will never feel “lonely”, but “lonely” gives us a kind of “lonely”. The “cleanness” of the thought and the “pureness” of the style, without these, how to resist the uncomfortable “noisy” and “temptation” in life?), but like aesthetic pleasure, when the aesthetic taste of a work is peered Appreciation Tasting produces the spiritual pleasure of the taste.

Philosophy is often mistaken for “useless” learning, saying that it does not bring “bread” or “long skills”, neither “rich” nor help “promoting”. The question that the general philosophy teacher is most afraid of asking questions is said to be the use of learning philosophy. This is actually a “prejudice” left to people by the “fake philosophy” that has been instilled for a long time.

Only the “乞丐” in the world needs others to “bring” his bread. Normal people can rely on their own “small worms” to get it. What is the “big drive” of “philosophy”? If a person’s life goal is only positioned to obtain “bread,” he does not need to ruin the philosophy. But where a person has a higher degree of pursuit, what “long skills”, “promotion of the official” and “rich” can be achieved without philosophy, and if there is philosophical help, it will be made available to them. Innocent, this is also common sense without a statement. Although philosophy is not “technology,” it can help people to “long skills.” Although philosophy despise all “the way to promote the government,” it can teach the true “state of the government”; philosophy is ridiculous about “rich”, but can teach people why “It is both rich and expensive.”

The “expensive” of man is not in his bread, official position and wealth, but in his knowledge, talent and education. The acquisition of true knowledge, talent and education is not a philosophy. Philosophy neither teaches one plus one equal to two such “arithmetic knowledge”, nor does it solve the “physical knowledge” of “sun-heating stone heat”. It only guides you to explore why truth knows what is true, that is, one can call it The “knowledge” of “truth” is the standard or “reason” of “truth”. Therefore, the knowledge of philosophy is the exploration of the judgment of “truth”. It has actually turned “knowledge” into “intelligence”. “”. Thus, the “knowledge” of philosophy is based on the “knowledge” of “science”, but it transcends and even “higher” than the “knowledge” of science. The so-called “transcendence” is the narrow “boundary” of “crossing” specific scientific knowledge, with “world” and systemicity. Just as “the rationality of matter” is the intellectual object of physics, the intellectual object of philosophy is “knowledge”. It is itself the “world” or “system” of knowledge itself; the so-called “above” does not mean that the “knowledge” of philosophy is in “the sky”, but rather that it is all specific knowledge of heaven and earth. The “foundation” or “foundation” is embodied in the inquiry and clarification of the “rationality” of the “first principle” of “unknown” and “not thinking” of science itself. It cannot be a form of “knowledge” that everyone agrees with, but it constitutes a universally effective methodology for us to seek truth. Therefore, in this respect, only philosophy can make us have “truth”, that is, the knowledge of the “first principle” of the “world” (all), such universal knowledge may make us beyond Narrow and evolving from the self and thinking from the “world” and “human” vision of “talent” and “education.” Only with this universal vision and heart, talents have the nobleness of “humanity.” A person is “smart and talented”, and his ability is very big. He does not mean that he is “powerful and boundless” and “doing nothing”; one has broad knowledge and high knowledge, not because he is “omniscient”, “nothing to see” . Human knowledge, talent and education are mainly in his thought and judgment. If a person has “knowledge” but can’t judge “being good or evil”, then his “ability” and “talent” will not only help him, but on the contrary he will help him. Therefore, truly talented people will initiate their “judgment” and make legitimate judgments on the general problems faced by mankind. They can recognize the general rules of human behavior and know how to correctly distinguish which ones “can be” and “cannot”. What kind of “should be” and “what should not be”, and then “self-legislation”, to prevent doing “can not be” and “not to do”, and It is the real talent of a person to do his best for the “can do” and to do his best to achieve the best. Therefore, the true talent is not only a work of “transforming knowledge into wisdom”, but also further “turning wisdom into morality”, and devoting evil to goodness in virtue, so that there is truly excellent “education” and nobility.

Philosophy is such a kind of teaching that teaches people with nobleness. The excellence and nobleness of man is not born, not by birth, but depends on the nobleness of our own spiritual quality or soul quality. The nobleness of the spirit or the soul cannot be achieved by non-philosophy. Because the quality of the spirit or the soul is supported by thoughts and judgments, and noble thoughts and judgments do not need to be preserved by superior philosophy. Although each of us has more or less philosophical genes in our blood, children are born like philosophers, but only a few people can consciously recognize the need of philosophy and philosophically need to consciously care for and conserve. The hardships and hardships of life often drag people into the journey of struggle for bread, causing people to suppress and annihilate the philosophical needs of their nature. A person who has delicious bread but raises a vulgar person has never experienced a little spiritual pleasure. He will only spend all his efforts and strength on the enjoyment of worldly enjoyment, power and money, and thus can only give him the preciousness of heaven. Life ends in vulgarity and cannot rise. Only a few lucky people can appreciate the joy of philosophical life. I realize that the higher mission of human beings is to make natural life self-excellent, and to be noble and noble because of self-created excellence, in return and inherit the magic of nature. Creativity, thus creating an indispensable and intense need for philosophy. Generally speaking, there are three types of people in our life who are easy to find and respect the philosophical needs of the innermost: one is the fear of the heart, the other is the natural good, and the third is the pursuit of elegance.

The feared person includes both successful people and a large number of frustrated people. When a successful person is suddenly shocked by his own success on a certain night: How can I be able to make such a big fortune in this life? Can the officer win such a great success? At this time, if he is a well-educated person, he will have the philosophical impulse, not only to explore the deep reasons for success, but to explore the meaning of life. Does my life really live for this? Can my life sustain such success? The inner surprise and fear become the lead of his philosophy. Of course, when a large number of uncultivated people are surprised by their great success, the inner fear is not to lead them to the philosophical meditation, but to the meaning of life and death, but to the temple to burn incense and worship Buddha, pray for the Buddha. Blessing; the same is true of the frustrated, will be deeply shocked by one’s own defeat in one day, the inner fear may lead him to explore the mystery of life and death, the true meaning of life, and thus go to philosophy, it is also possible to make it completely Worship down the temple of God, thinking that God will save a mindless person or a spiritual dwarf.

Naturally good thinkers are closer to philosophy, because philosophy is the study of thought. Everyone who grows up, whether the family is rich or poor, must face the life that is being carried out in front of himself. This must be learned by himself, and it is impossible to seek parental guidance. Everything in life requires us to think clearly before we can do it well. People who don’t think and don’t use their brains, if they don’t live in a mess, they will almost never do anything. The shortness of life makes it difficult for us to bear the constant mistakes, and the inability to return to life makes us unable to pay the irreparable cost of frustration, all of which give the mind the vital importance of life. However, “good thinking” does not mean “will think.” The sadness of human beings often lies in the fact that when we urgently need our thoughts, we find ourselves unaware that we don’t think about it, so we rush to take an instant answer from the authority, from prejudice, from others’ experiences and lessons, and we don’t know the results of others’ thoughts. It is not necessarily effective for the real situation of your present. Just like an “emergency state” will not be the national security of the country, the life that is constantly in danger will inevitably be in crisis. Therefore, a good life requires a good thinker, and a good thinker needs to become a thinker, and must undergo professional training in philosophy. Because philosophy is to teach people to think and to live on ideas. Only by learning philosophical thinking can we think of ideas. The characteristic of the thought is to grasp the essence and the root of the problem through the logic of thinking. A person who thinks well will also think about it, but his thoughts may not have logic, and the logical training of philosophical thinking, the most important thing is the ability to cultivate the “business” of thought. The reason for “being alive and making a living” is that “the book of affairs” can prevent us from thinking about it, using the originality of the image, and thus missing the fundamental problem. Only by grasping the fundamental problem and solving the fundamental problem of the problem, will it have the talent of “high-rise building”, and this kind of talent can only be formed by philosophy.

The pursuit of “elegant people” can detect and respect the inner philosophical needs, because this pursuit itself is enough to show that the value of the rough life is not reversed by the pursuer. The roughness of human beings is not innate, but the chaste oil and salt of the secular life are comparable to the scenery. It is very easy for people to live outside of life. Life is not the process of making their own noble life, but it has become a “face project” for others. Material expressions, power desires, and desires can add a bright color to life, and they will inflate infinitely, so that they can’t escape from it to enter the shaping of their noble life. On the contrary, the inner pursuit of elegance always puts the noble ideals and goals ahead. No matter how difficult life is, this ideal and goal are often like a lighthouse, illuminating the way forward, and will not let it fall into the quagmire. The reason why the pursuit of elegance can go to philosophy is that he must think clearly about what is the elegance and noble life of life as a lifelong ideal and goal, and how this life is worth living for a lifetime. No matter how others look at it, it is difficult for him to reject the temptation and comparison of rough life. And when a person can be positioned as an elegant person and a noble life goal is to position or defend the ultimate goal of life, he is already a good philosopher, and can be regarded as a true philosopher because he Already able to answer the question of what is the highest value of this philosophy. Whether or not the pursuit of elegance is subject to the professional training of philosophy, he will be able to establish a set of high and low ranks for the “elegance” that is recognized and believed in the heart, so that his soul is orderly and will not be arbitrarily smashed by the secular life. Disturbed. In this way, he/she can truly enter into his own life. This life is self-sufficient and thus free. It pursues the truth of philosophy: “It is what it is” and thus independent; Because of his freedom and independence, he is responsible for fulfilling the mission of natural life to the noble life. Therefore, it does not necessarily enjoy the happiness of secular identity, but it must be shared with happiness, thus being dignified and thus truly decent. . No matter how beautiful or beautiful the life of others is, it is impossible to compare with this natural noble.

People need philosophy. In fact, they hope that philosophy can lead it to this path of self-improvement to noble life. Because not every natural philosophical hobby can ultimately achieve a true philosophy, the true “philosophy” can never be infused as a noun (Philosophy), as a ready-made “knowledge” or “ideology”, The philosophical energy can be used. It is fundamental to use philosophy as a verb, that is, the German philosophieren, as a kind of “thinking” ideological activity, melts into the human blood, becomes the quality of its spirit or soul, and thus lives. Form and even life are “self-shaping.” Philosophy, as such a spiritual or spiritual self-shaping activity, requires special training. Special training requires good philosophical textbooks. At present, for most philosophers, what is lacking is a good philosophy textbook.

The greatness of the editorial team of China Light Industry Press is precisely to see this market. I have nothing to do with the publishing house, and Mr. Kong Shengnan, the editor of the book, is also alive, and when he contacted me by email and then sent this Consulter Philosophy to me, I immediately found out that this was a book. A rare good textbook. Its good performance is mainly reflected in the following aspects:

First, this is a book that fascinates people’s philosophical thinking. As an American professor, the author stresses that philosophy has the characteristics of Anglo-American analytic philosophy and emphasizes the cultivation of philosophical thinking ability. This kind of thinking ability is the martial arts analysis of the basic problems of philosophy, the ability to logically reason about the objects involved in the problem, the method of judging the premise of the thinking and the reasoning process. Therefore, unlike ordinary textbooks, it first tells you the views of the various factions of “what is philosophy”, but tells you how a philosophical thinking is argued. In this part, the author tells you through a large number of examples how to conduct an effective and convincing philosophical argument, and at the same time how to avoid the trap of invalid philosophical inquiry and discussion, and what types and manifestations of invalid arguments. In this way, the reader does not feel passively accepting boring philosophical knowledge, but actively participates in philosophical thinking.

Second, the author’s introduction to philosophical issues, unlike the general British and American contemporary textbooks, mainly involves contemporary philosophical issues, but basic philosophical questions that directly arouse students’ interest. When we discuss whether we believe in the existence of God, God means what? When we say that we ask for knowledge, what is the nature of knowledge and the essence of the mind. The discussion of the basic issues of philosophy is undoubtedly the distinctive feature of this book. Because of this characteristic, we feel that it is not a simple analytical training of analytic philosophy, but a training of thinking in general philosophy.

Third, it successfully solved the relationship between philosophy and the history of philosophy. Many people who emphasize the importance of analytic philosophy in the training of philosophical thinking today often emphasize “doing philosophy”, that is, when philosophical thinking is carried out, they ignore or despise the significance of the history of philosophy to the question he is thinking, and thus make philosophical thinking. When it excludes the history of philosophy, it is not necessarily related to the history of philosophy and philosophy. The philosophical question not only discussed in this book is a general philosophical problem, but the linguistic analysis and logical argumentation of analytic philosophy are clearly reflected. At the same time, the classical works in the history of philosophy and the discussion of these issues by writers are viewed in multiple perspectives. Extensive presentation. To enable contemporary readers, even non-philosophical generals, to be immersed in every dialogue of philosophy. This not only allows the reader to understand and appreciate the original literature of philosophy, to understand the historical and cultural background of the issues they discussed at the time, but also to allow readers to leap into the debate with the masters at any time. The current philosophical thinking and the organic combination of the philosophical history context and the literature are its most distinctive features, and other textbooks are hard to match.

Fourth, the book presents the most important philosopher’s ideological arguments, not only the classic writers of philosophy, such as Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, but also a large number of today’s active in the world of philosophy. Famous philosophers such as Nasbaum, Thomas Nagel and many more. Therefore, it belongs to the feast of thought that integrates the ancient and modern philosophy in which readers participate, which is difficult to achieve in other textbooks.

Fifth, the book’s practical philosophy, that is, the proportion of ethics and political philosophy is quite high, which reflects to some extent a basic trend of contemporary philosophy: ethics as the first philosophy. This is also the psychological motivation of many people who love philosophy: solving problems in life through philosophy. Although philosophy has simple methodological and logical thinking training, and there are theoretical and philosophical issues such as simple ontology and epistemology, but philosophers are all interested in the purpose of “learning to adults.” Everyone in their own life will encounter the need for the second creation of their own personality and life, and the philosophical energy can achieve a superior and noble life. The second creation of the participants is based on ethics. Learning, or practical philosophy. The revival and prosperity of contemporary practical philosophy reflects this awakening of human self-consciousness.

Sixth, at the end of each chapter of the book, there are open questions with interesting and challenging questions for the reader to think further. This naturally not only satisfies the needs of the general readers, but is also rare for every teacher who teaches philosophy. The material, as the author himself said, “can be used as a class discussion or as a short written assignment.”

Indeed, philosophical textbooks with so many advantages are rare. Good teaching materials can bring philosophy lovers to the main entrance, in order to minimize the number of “Min Zhe”, which is fortunate for people and fortunate for the country.

Finally, I have to declare that the translation of the book was mainly completed by Dr. Chen Xiaotong and Yang Yufan, who graduated from the School of Philosophy of Fudan University. Yang Yufan took the first six chapters and Chen Xiaoyu took the last eight chapters. After they have completed each other independently, they have carefully proofread each other and, on this basis, handed the translation to me for proofreading and finalization. After the publisher had a good version, I read the full text and did the last proofreading and revision. Since Yang Yufan and Chen Xiaoyu were both English majors, the English foundation was relatively good. After the master’s and doctoral studies at Fudan University, the ability to translate the original text was greatly improved, and after graduation, they stayed at the university as a philosophy teacher. The solid foundation of philosophy and philosophy has made it easier for us to proofread, and the editors of the publishing house are very satisfied with their translations. Therefore, we have completed a pleasant cooperation through this book.