Context is related to the nation’s luck and the spirit of educating people through literature and art. What kind of literature and art do we need when we stand at the window of an era of multiple values and cross-flow of technology? Mr. Zhu Guangqian believes that the first important thing in literature and art is to cultivate noble and pure tastes. If one starts with the cultivation of vulgar tastes, the further one moves forward, the farther one will be from the smooth road of literature and art. He deeply analyzed the five manifestations and causes of vulgar taste in literary creation, and pointed out that the only way to enhance the interest of literature and art is to ponder over the first-class literary masterpieces. In these works, what at first glance is ordinary is pondered over the hidden wonderful implication, and then the ” popular” works are compared to see the advantages and disadvantages naturally. It is hereby compiled and distributed for your consideration.
The function of literature and art is to express the author’s emotional thoughts and convey them to the readers so that the readers are moved by understanding. According to the author, he has two natural urgent needs. The first is performance. Emotional thoughts are vitality, naturally need to vent, vent is smooth and happy, not vent is depression. Therefore, literature and art are a necessity. If a writer is not absolutely necessary, he had better keep silent. He has already won, but if he can find words, his motive is not pure, his source is not substantial, his attitude is not sincere, and his works will not have great artistic value. The second is the need for communication. Human beings are social animals and need sympathy. The more precious their spiritual values are, the more ardently they desire to be shared. If an author is willing to deliver his profound secret to the readers, it shows that he has deep sympathy for the readers, and at the same time he needs the sympathy of the readers to repay him. Therefore, his attitude must be sincere, serious and cordial. If a writer does not have this kind of sympathy in his heart, he only wants to gain a little royalty or empty voice from the readers. In order to achieve this kind of goal which is not very bright, he will not hesitate to use any means which is not very bright to ingratiate himself with the readers and deceive them. That is definitely not literature and art.
As a matter of fact, after literature and art became a profession, these two kinds of defects, which show and convey two kinds of urgent needs, are very common. How can the author be faithful to art if he is not faithful to himself and readers? This is a basic mistake in the author’s attitude, and many expressions of vulgar taste have been made since then.
The first is moaning without illness and putting on airs.
Literature and art must come out of the deepest feeling of sex, and no one knows it. However, people who do not have deep sexual feelings are often tempted to produce works, so they have to put on airs or exaggerate excessively with shallow and vulgar sentiment. The worst is, of course, putting on airs. I don’t have that feeling in my heart, but I pretend to have that feeling. Filled with dust and worries, he is inclined to learn from Tao Xie’s natural scenery and pretend to be elegant. Pornographic pursuers actually follow romantic poets to eulogize the supremacy of love and holiness as long as they meet the natural needs of physiology. Living a petty-bourgeois life and acting close to the bourgeois gentry, he cursed the darkness of society, talked a little about socialism and shouted a few slogans. He actually looked like a revolutionary. There are so many kinds of things like this. Monkey is the first to be bathed in water. People are not like people.
In addition, some people think that they have feelings. No matter how superficial and vulgar they are, they tell the whole story and try to exaggerate it. This can be said to be ” discouragement”. People are not wood and stone. Who has no little feeling about the changes in personnel and material conditions? Spring has come and everything is flourishing. I cannot help feeling a burst of joy or nostalgia. Autumn is coming, and life is becoming less interesting. I recall my life experience and feel a little bit late. The cool breeze and bright moon can not help disturbing the boudoir’s thoughts, and the old trees and crows can not help hurting people’s lives. The value assessed by myself has not received the attention of the society, so I feel helpless and depressed. After drinking a few glasses of old wine, I suddenly felt as if I had a heroic spirit. If I had one or two ” bosom friends”, I would drain my liver and make promises to each other. Then I would feel grateful for the ” loyalty” of the newspaper. All this is human nature, but there are a lot of absurd absurdities and cliches in human nature. Apart from being the interludes of comedy, there is no need to brag. Unfortunately, many writers have been living in these shallow and vulgar sentiments all their lives, just like drunkards babbling, pouring these shallow and vulgar sentiments into their so-called ” works”. ” A handful of bitter tears” is ” full of absurd words”.
This ” discouragement” has a long historical tradition. There have been so-called ” poets and poets” in China since ancient times, wandering around in poetry and wine, lamenting their life, and looking at their ” crazy songs and weeping” expression, they seem to have endless sadness in their chests and poured out uneven blocks. As for the ideal of ordinary scholars and women, they have always been gifted scholars and beauties, and the only identity cards of gifted scholars and beauties are ” good at illness, good at work and sorrow” and ” singing about the wind and making love to the moon”. In Europe, the ” sentimentalism” that is most closely related to romanticism is actually a kind of ” discouragement”. Poets all think that they are fairy who have fallen into the world by mistake. Their ideals are in the clouds, their feet are stuck in the mud, and they cannot extricate themselves. They complain about the sky. They seem to think that without such a little sentimental color, their noble identity cannot be revealed. Byron’s dazzling clothes and haggard, sighing look intoxicated many western beauties and talents at that time. After the time passed, we looked at him coldly and saw how ridiculous his erect posture made people draw pictures!
At this time when the old and the new are changing, there are still many people who, on the one hand, inherit the inherent tradition of poets, calligraphers and beauties, and, on the other hand, are stained with the coarser colors of western romanticism. They are full of paper and tears, but in their bones there is really no kind and sincere emotion. This kind of work, like Plato has seen for a long time, can ingratiate itself with the weakness of human love for emotional stimulation and is often especially popular with readers. This kind of interest is low – level, because it is decadent, unhealthy and not artistic.
The second is silly skin smelly face, smooth tone
Most of the authors who adopt this attitude use literature and art to take part in a play and use ” humor” as a talisman. Originally, the origin of literature and art was close to games. They all played on the fresh and interesting aspects of life and the world. They were all free activities of human beings when they were rich and full of energy. Therefore, literature and art could not be separated from humor. We must admit the importance of humor to literature and art, and at the same time point out that humor is extremely difficult. Humor differs in various degrees. Speaking a little higher, Zhuang Zi, Sima Qian, Tao Qian and Du Fu have their humor. To speak a little lower, crosstalk, juggling, village jokes, street hooligans fighting lip – synching, post – pranks and the like also have their humor.
Humor has a very subtle sense of propriety. Losing this sense of propriety leads to indecency and thinness. About in the first-class works, a high degree of humor and a high degree of seriousness are often combined into one piece, with a derisive smile. Apart from entertaining and moving the humor, there is also a profound and meaningful meaning. It can not only endure people’s thinking, but also excite emotions, with tears in the smile and sympathy in the sarcasm. Many great poets, tragedians, comedians and novelists often have this skill. However, this kind of humor often requires considerable cultivation to appreciate. Most people only appreciate humor such as crosstalk, duet, village play jokes, and hooligan’s playfulness. They like these things in real life and still demand them in literary works. Some writers, in order to ingratiate themselves with such vulgar tastes, do not hesitate to pose as clowns and take pride in teasing and laughing. Some time ago, a so-called ” humorous essay” caused a sensation by borrowing several popular publications. Generally, men, women and children buy it, read it, admire it and imitate it. Until now, its influence is still great.
The third is waving flags and shouting, partisanship
Only right and wrong in thought, only beauty and ugliness in literature and art. This is the only criterion for us to choose good or bad. If we have friends and enemies in literature and art, all those who hold a serious and pure attitude towards literature and art and have made achievements should be friends, and all those who use literature and art for other purposes and whose works show low taste should be enemies. As for whether an author is the same as me in academic, political, religious, regional and social status, and even whether he and I have personal grudges, they should not be asked.
Literature and art are created, and each person has his or her own uniqueness. Therefore, there should be more differences between people in literature and art than in politics or religion. The more different the literature and art in a certain place and at a certain time, the wider its vitality will be. Of course, writers of every time and place tend to be similar, and in line with the principle of simultaneous correspondence, they gather together to become a faction. This is a common occurrence in history and is not a bad thing in itself. However, by imitating the method of helping people in the Jianghu to become sworn brothers, a stockaded village leader is set up, a banner is set up, followers are gathered, flags are waved and shouting are raised, and people who pass by are forced to ” become outlaws” and naturalize. If they dare to set up a school of their own, they will start a new army and kill the past. This method is not good for themselves and others, nor is it good for literature and art.
We need not deny that this kind of bad habit of Jianghu helpers seems to be still rampant in our literary and art circles. There is also a group of ambitious politicians in the literary and art circles who want to take over the country, monopolize customers and steal patriarchs. Mian Yan pretends to ” support new writers” and recruits disciples. Once there is a ” mass”, it is just like Wang Ma ‘er selling plasters. Along the way, he shouts ” This is the only one, beware of counterfeiting”. As for his own plasters, let alone ” Wan Bao Ling Ying”. On the one hand, they both bluffed themselves and wrote a work, then went out with great fanfare. On the one hand, he wants to take others down a peg or two. When he comes across a work that is not under his own banner, he tore it to pieces. He takes it out of context and criticizes it to pieces. The best way to treat it is to ignore it coldly.
This ” strategy” is not limited to one faction. The same is true of writers in classical Chinese and vernacular Chinese, as well as of various factions in vernacular Chinese. Pity many naive readers can’t stand the suggestion of shouting and mocking, go deep into the book without knowing it, and involuntarily form some prejudices. The works of one faction must be good, and the works of another faction must be bad. Before reading and comprehending, they have already doomed the value of the works. I am afraid it is too light to describe them as ” vulgar”.
The fourth is Taoism in winter, preaching good advice
What we are going to talk about here is not the works intended for publicity, but the common psychological habit of looking at the situation of the characters in the works from a narrow moral point of view. Literature and art should faithfully represent life, and life is originally full of good and evil, good and evil, and fortune and misfortune. Our moral consciousness naturally makes us rejoice in the good, beautiful, lucky, and happy aspects, and dislike the evil, ugly, evil, and tragic aspects. However, literature and art look at life, as Arnold said, and must be ” look on life steadfastly and as a whole”. one should not focus on light and avoid darkness. Standing on a higher level to see, on the contrary, it is often appropriate to complement each other, resulting in the greatness and dignity of life and the world. However, it is not easy for ordinary people to stand on a higher level to see. Although there are defects in real life, they hope that such defects can be made up in literature and art.
Shakespeare wrote ” King Lear” to make a most filial and pure woman suffer a tragic death at the end. Johnson said that he could not see the end of the tragedy because the end was too bad. This tragedy appeared on the stage in the 18th century, and its ending was completely changed. Filial piety female not only did not die but also married a loyal minister. Our Chinese dream of red mansions has no happy reunion between Jia Baoyu and Lin Daiyu. many people also regret it. therefore, we have a dream of red mansions to make up for this defect. ” Romance of the Western Chamber” originally let Yingying remarry to Zheng Heng, but ” Jin Xi Xiang” changed to marry Zheng Heng’s matchmaker, and Yingying finally returned to Zhang Xun.
There are many such examples, which are enough to prove that many people replace ” moral sympathy” with ” aesthetic sympathy”. Where is the difference? For example, a player who plays Cao Cao is very good at acting like a crafty old scoundrel. One of the carpenters in the audience was carrying an axe, so he ran to the stage to cut off the head of the person who played Cao Cao. The carpenter used ” moral sympathy” to deal with the characters in the play. If he uses ” aesthetic sympathy” to play the role of Cao Cao, the more like he is, the happier and more cheering he should be. Knowing this difference, let’s look at what kind of sympathy the average person uses to read novels and plays. Seeing Wu Song kill her sister – in – law, everyone felt very happy. Jin Shengtan would call it ” floating in a big white”. Seeing Qingwen dying and dying, many young masters and young ladies shed many tears. They want ” retribution for good and evil, bringing out the obvious” and ” all lovers in the world shall have their families”, and they want to fight against injustice for the unlucky. From a moral point of view, their loyalty can be admired. From an artistic point of view, their minds are the same as those of the authors of ” Taishang Induction” and ” Yin Zhi Quan Shi Wen”. They are both taoist and dry in winter, and all of them are inevitably affected by vulgar tastes.
The fifth is to paint and powder, show off your charm.
Literature and art are expressions rather than ostentation. The ideal of the performance is ” full and brilliant” with rich text and emotion. Although painstakingly carved, it is flawless, natural and ironed, and does not act as a trace now. A perfect work of art is like a good family, striking but unobtrusive. In her generous manner, she still has her virginity, quiet and leisure, and her noble identity. Art, like human beings, has its character. We often say that a certain kind of art is high and a certain kind of art is low. Of course, the quality of the art can be seen in many ways. The most important thing is still the attitude of the author. High quality is the perfection of Gao Hua, which is sincere in the center, outward in form and outward in appearance. What is inferior is that one does not have enough inside but seeks glory outside, deliberately showing off, like a small family whore smearing grease and powder, parading through the market with her eyebrows raised and her eyes looked after.
There are various ways to show off literature and art. The most common thing is to show off words and phrases, to pile up beautiful words, to appear ostentatious and dazzling, regardless of whether it is absolutely necessary for thoughts and feelings. In the past, parallel prose made the most mistakes, and now new writers sometimes have to.
The second is to show off your knowledge. A writer of literature and art cannot live without knowledge, but his knowledge must be dissolved in water like salt, taste and shape. Sometimes the learned authors have no heart to reveal their knowledge in their works. We still have the feeling that ” knowledge has lost its essence”. As for the intention to show off knowledge, such as the upstart praising several treasures to others, it is enough for ordinary people to show poor taste, and it is even more disgusting in literary works. In the past, Chinese scholars committed this disease most frequently. The most prominent examples are the use of uncommon codes, philosophical discussions, and ancient writing. New literature writers often like to tell out the materials they know better indiscriminately. Whether it is absolutely necessary to show emotional appeal, describe characters or point out stories, writing about the countryside puts everything in the countryside, and writing about officialdom puts all the grotesque forms of officialdom in it, like grocery stores, with scattered goods piled together without any uniformity. Even famous works such as Pearl Buck’s ” The Earth” and Wu Jianren’s ” The Strange Situation Seen in the Past 20 Years” are unavoidable. This is also a display of knowledge.
The third is to show off your talent. Writers of literature and art can’t be without talent, but displaying talent and showing off intentionally is still of poor taste. As the British philosopher Hume and the French poet Verlaine have repeatedly pointed out, literature should not only have ” eloquence”, but also have the color of not being able to speak eloquently. ” Eloquence” is to use one’s words to win. The speaker must show his intelligence, win the admiration of the masses, pay attention to the ” effect” of words, and show others his ability to suppress and persuade people. It is inevitable to put on a lot of affectations, and the more brilliant he appears, the easier it is to succeed. But this superficial display is a big stain on literary works. The more talented the general literary writers are, the harder it is to avoid the problem of flaunting eloquence. Once upon a time, the literati boasted that they could write all kinds of words, rely on horses and rely on them. It was not easy to write a single word, and when they wrote poems, they wrote a few tens of rhyming poems. With grandiose and sonorous words and dramatic expressions, they poured down one after another. At first glance, they sounded gratifying, but at last, they did not have a lingering aftertaste. All of these showed off their talents and used eloquence in literature. Works like this are still not very interesting.
There are countless defects in literary and artistic tastes. The above are just some of the most outstanding ones. Some of them are serious and some are mild, but they are very common among ordinary beginners. Many readers have heard my remarks and found that what they usually feel smug about is regarded as vulgar taste by me, which inevitably blames me for being too strict and demanding and too narrow – minded. This matter cannot be disputed by words. I can only say that if a person who is engaged in literature starts with it, he or she will develop vulgar taste, and the further he or she moves forward, the farther he or she will be from the smooth road of literature. I think the first important thing in literary education is to cultivate noble and pure tastes. There is no shortcut. The only way is to ponder over first-class literary masterpieces. In these works, what at first glance looks ordinary is pondered over the hidden wonderful implication. Then, by comparing ” popular” works, the advantages and disadvantages will naturally be met. The pros and cons can be compared. I have been drinking bad wine all my life. I don’t think the wine is bad. After drinking some good wine, the bad wine will not taste right when imported. The taste in all aspects is generally the same.