In China’s universities in the 1980s, there were only law schools but no law schools. At that time, the teaching materials for students to learn were unified, and the relevant legal theories were relatively simple. For example, when talking about the functions and functions of law, it was inevitable to use the image of ” knife to handle the child” to illustrate its dictatorship and repression against the enemy. Academic circles hold seminars to seriously discuss such ” big issues” as ” curing people” or ” ruling by law”. At that time, the law school could be said to be a scene of desolation and waste. The laws that have already been enacted are obviously planned economy and so on. For example, according to the provisions of the Criminal Law, if someone buys materials from a certain place at a low price and resells them at a higher price to another place, he will commit the crime of ” speculation”. If this crime is told to today’s students, they will not be able to keep their mouth shut for half a day. Some new laws are being drawn up. Teachers and students see the new laws almost at the same time. Naturally, most of the classes are now learning and selling, which does not necessarily mean they have more and better opinions than students. At that time, there were few reference books. Montesquieu’s ” On the Spirit of Law” was not easy to borrow from the library.
As the saying goes, people are iron, rice is steel, a meal not to eat hungry panic. For green plants, the most indispensable ” food” is sunshine.
Photosynthesis is the largest and most important chemical reaction on the earth that green plants, algae and bacteria use sunlight. However, human beings have not fully grasped the secrets of plant photosynthesis.
A few days ago, a team from the Institute of Botany of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, led by academician Kuang Tingyun of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and researcher Shen Jianren, published a paper in the form of a long article in Science magazine, which for the first time analyzed the high-resolution structure of diatom’s main light-harvesting antenna protein, revealing the photosynthetic mystery of this extremely widespread phytoplankton that has long been ” prevalent” on earth.
During this period, Philipp Kanske, a psychologist at Dresden University of Technology in Germany, was ” very angry” because he had to spend quite a lot of time contacting different libraries and even directly contacting the author by email to get the articles he needed. However, some articles are still impossible to obtain.
” It really makes me very angry.” He said.
All this comes from the deadlock in subscription negotiations between German scientific research institutions and publisher Elsevier.
Recently, Elsevier said that while German research institutions negotiated a new agreement with Elsevier, the company’s subscription volume decreased. However, some German libraries involved in the negotiations said that they saved a lot of money without subscribing, while still being able to provide articles needed by scholars.
Genome data sharing has pushed biomedical research to the fast track. However, the existing data guidelines issued to the public domain, on the one hand, recognize the importance of free and unconditional use of data, and on the other hand, fail to solve the relationship between this importance and the ” right” of data producers to release data for the first time.
According to Nikos Kyrpides, head of the joint genomics institute of the U.S. department of energy, this contradiction has led to different interpretations and ongoing debates between data producers and data users on the use of public data.
How long will it take to find out a complaint of scientific misconduct? There has never been a uniform standard.
JanHendrik Schón’s ” falsification of data case” in bell laboratory took about 11 months from peer questioning in October 2001 to the report released by the investigation team in September 2002.
Hwang Woo – suk’s ” Embryonic Stem Cell Falsification Case” took about 20 months from the disclosure of Nature magazine in May 2004 to the release of the investigation results by Seoul University in January 2006.