When it comes to the universe, there are always countless interesting topics for you, and they are not ascertainable. He also always gives more difficult problems and branches of science when people want to spy out the truth. It includes a series of disciplines such as macro and micro, so the universe discipline is estimated to be an all-round discipline that will never be discovered.
However, sometimes it seems to be joking and playing with us. No matter whether science, religion or philosophy have made all kinds of explanations to the universe, there is no perfect explanation. The meaning of our being in it is really and forever unknown. There are countless theories that have been confirmed and uncertain in cosmology. For example, contemporary science believes that the universe originated from a big explosion 13.8 billion years ago and was born. This indicates that the age of the universe is 13.8 billion years. However, it was discovered not long ago that scientists have discovered the existence of 14.4 billion years old celestial bodies. If the Big Bang theory is wrong, it may change almost all the basic theories of the discipline. The universe is a very grand existence for us. It is this macroscopic existence that makes us struggle to build ladder beams of numerous disciplines in order to finally clarify the existence of source and meaning.
What I am talking to you today is that our universe may only be a microcosm in a higher level world.
Personally, I think the main reason is that our universe is really too similar to a single cell or an atom or molecule as far as we know.
The personal view mentioned by the author in the previous article is that our universe is formed by the big bang of the singularity of black holes in the higher universe. From this author’s personal point of view, imagine that the singularity of this black hole, the Big Bang, is also a microscopic existence in the upper universe.
In a nutshell, you can think of galaxies as atoms and molecules, with high-quality stars in the center as nuclei and electrons surrounding them. Although you know electrons move irregularly, you cannot capture the motion of atoms themselves. For example, in the solar system, there are only eight planets. Pluto may be just other free electrons outside the nucleus.
I don’t know if everyone will agree with this article, this view is just the view of some individuals, after all, how the truth is still uncertain. This means that all these possibilities may be true. The universe is another existence with infinite possibilities.
In 1964, gherman put forward the quark model, believing that mesons are composed of quarks and antiquarks, and baryons are composed of three quarks. He won the 1969 physics prize for this.
Atoms are made up of nuclei and electrons. Nuclei are made up of protons and neutrons. What are protons and neutrons made up of? This is indeed the wheel of the round! The basic components of these newly discovered substances are protons and neutrons, which were not named at that time. Gail – Mann then coined a name – quark. And the name is really so called. Hadrons are made up of quarks. The ancient Greeks believed that all matter was made up of a few elementary particles ( what they called ” atoms” ). This great principle has proved to be not so well understood. Is the basic particle a quark? Are quarks also complexes? We will discuss this issue later.
Quarks are attached together in two configurations. One configuration is that two quarks are attached together, and the other configuration is that three quarks are attached together. Two quarks together form mesons, and three quarks together form baryons. Quarks also have quantum energy levels. It can be excited into a higher level by absorbing energy. Excited hadrons look like other hadrons, so many previously considered independent particles are now considered excited states of single quark binding.
In order to explain all known hadrons, it must be assumed that there is more than one quark. In the early 1970s, people imagined three kinds of ” flavor” quarks. These three kinds of quarks are called ” up”, ” down” and ” odd” whimsically. Later, there were more hadrons and a fourth kind of quark, the charmed quark. Recently, more particles have appeared, and it is believed that there are still two other quarks: ” top” quarks and ” bottom” quarks. Now, many kinds of particle actions can be understood systematically by detailed quark calculations.
The basic presupposition of quark theory is that quark itself is a truly integrated basic particle, a point-like object with no internal components. In this respect, quarks are rather like leptons, because leptons are not made up of quarks, and they themselves seem to be elementary particles. In fact, there is a natural correspondence between quarks and leptons, giving people unexpected opportunities to see how nature works. The systematic connection between quarks and leptons is shown in Table 1 below. The right column of the table is the flavor of quarks, and the left is all known leptons. Remember, leptons feel weak forces while quarks feel strong forces. Another difference between leptons and quarks is that leptons are either uncharged or have only one unit of charge. Quarks, on the other hand, carry 1 / 3 or 2 / 3 units of charge.
Although there are such differences between leptons and quarks, there is a profound mathematical symmetry between the two, which makes leptons and quarks have a level-by-level correspondence in the above chart. The first level has only four kinds of particles: upper and lower quarks, electrons and electric neutrinos. It is strange that all ordinary matter is made up of these four particles. Protons and neutrons are made up of three quarks, while electrons are only subatomic particles that constitute matter. Neutrinos just run into the universe and have no part in the general structure of matter. As far as we know, if all the other particles suddenly disappear, the universe will not change much as long as there are these four kinds of particles.
Subatomic particles can be divided into two categories: leptons and quarks. Quarks were not found to exist alone, but two or three together. The charge of quarks is fractional. All ordinary matter is made up of particles at level I. Level II and Level III seem to be simple replications of Level I, in which particles are highly unstable. There may still be undiscovered aspects.
The particles in the next layer seem to be the replication of the first layer, but they are heavier. The particles in the second layer are extremely unstable ( except neutrinos ), and the various particles formed by them quickly decay into particles in layer I. The same is true for particles at the third level.
Therefore, the question inevitably arises: What is the use of particles other than level I? Why does nature need them? What role did they play in the process of forming the universe? Are they superfluous excrescences? Or are they part of some mysterious process that is not yet fully understood? The more puzzling question is, with the advent of particle accelerators with higher and higher energy in the future, are there only these three levels of particles? Will more or infinite layers be discovered?
There is also a complicated situation that deepens our confusion. In order to avoid conflicts with a basic principle of quantum physics, we must imagine that quarks of each flavor actually have three different forms, that is, what people call ” color”. Any given quark must be regarded as a superposition of some kind of multilayer plating ( figurative expression ), which constantly flashes ( another figurative expression ) ” red”, ” green” and ” blue”. In this way, everything looks like a messed-up zoo again. However, the way to clean up the situation is just around the corner. Symmetry has come to rescue the driver again. However, this time the symmetry, its form is more subtle, more profound, no wonder people call it supersymmetry.
In order to understand supersymmetry, we have to talk about another big clue of material basic structure analysis: force. No matter how complicated the particle zoo is, it seems that there are only four basic forces: gravity, electromagnetic force ( widely known for its close connection with daily life ), weak force and strong force. Of course, the strong force between neutron and proton cannot be the basic force, because neutron and proton themselves are complexes rather than basic particles. When two protons attract each other, what we actually see is the resultant force of the interaction of six quarks. The force between quarks is the basic force. The force between quarks can be described by describing electromagnetic fields, and the color of quarks is equivalent to electric charge. The proton’s counterpart is the so-called ” gluon”, whose function is to constantly bounce back and forth between quarks as we have said before, cementing quarks together. Physicists imitate electrodynamics and call this force field theory generated by ” color” chromodynamics. The effect of chromatic force is more complicated than that of electromagnetic force. There are two reasons for this. First, quarks have three colors, but there is only one charge, so eight different gluons correspond to one photon. Second, gluons also have colors, so they also have strong interactions with each other, while photons have no charge and are so irrelevant to each other.
Personally, the author thinks that if we magnify and magnify the single quark we know, we can only see the appearance of this tiny molecule. But the inside is unknown. For example, our universe may be a huge living organism, or our universe may be an egg. These theories may all be explaining that the universe is actually a microcosm of a larger world. There are still many such microcosms that we do not know.
Perhaps our universe is really just a tiny world of a huge world or there are countless such tiny worlds in our macro world. The universe is so grand that our existence is not only trivial.
Perhaps the universe is this kind of innumerable macroscopic nested with innumerable microscopic existence, which will make us explore it forever. It will certainly make our existence have more meaningful branches to explore.