EVELYN’S “SYLVA”

On my table, as I write, is the copy of “Sylva” that John Evelyn himself
gave to Sir Robert Morray, and in which he wrote in ink that is now
faded and brown, as are his own autograph corrections in the text,

“—from his most humble servant, Evelyn.”

The title page runs thus:

SYLVA,
or a Discourse of
FOREST-TREES,
AND THE
Propagation of Timber
In His MAJESTIES Dominions
By J. E. Esq;

As it was Delivered in the Royal Society the XVth of
October CIϽIϽCLXII. upon Occasion of certain Quaeries
Propounded to that Illustrious Assembly, by the Honorable
the Principal Officers, and Commissioners of the Navy.

To which is annexed

POMONA or, An Appendix concerning Fruit-Trees in
relation to CIDER;

The Making and several ways of Ordering it.

Published by the express Order of the ROYAL SOCIETY

ALSO

KALENDARIUM HORTENSE; Or, ye Gard’ners Almanac;
Directing what he is to do Monethly throughout the year.

—Tibi res antiquæ laudis et artis
Ingredior, tantos ausus recludere fonteis. _Virg._

LONDON: Printed by Jo. Martyn, and Ja. Allestry, Printers
to the Royal Society, and are to be sold at their Shop at the
Bell in S. Paul’s Church-yard;

MDCLXIV.

[Illustration: A WOOD AT WOTTON, THE HOME OF JOHN EVELYN.]

This book was the first ever printed for the Royal Society, and
contains, as may be seen, a practically complete record of seventeenth
century planting and gardening, thus having an unique interest for all
who follow the craft.

John Evelyn, from the day he began his lessons under the Friar in the
porch of Wotton Church, was a curious observer of men and things, but
especially was he devoted to all manners and styles of gardening.

Nothing was too small, too trivial to escape his notice; from the
weather-cocks on the trees near Margate—put there on the days the
farmers feasted their servants, to the interest he found in watching the
first man he ever saw drink coffee.

The positions he held under Charles II. and James II. were many and
varied, yet he found time to collect samples in Venice, and travel
extensively, to write a Play, a treatise called: “Mundus Muliebris, or
the Ladies’ Dressing Room, Unlocked,” and a pamphlet, called “Tyrannus,
or the Mode,” in which he sought to make Charles II. dress like a
Persian, and succeeded in so doing.

But above all these things he held his chiefest pleasure in seeing and
talking of the arrangement of gardens, passing on this love to his son
John, who, when a boy of fifteen, at Trinity College, Oxford, translated
“Rapin, or Gardens,” the second book of which his father included in his
second edition of “Sylva.”

His Majesty Charles II., to whom the “Sylva” is dedicated, was a monarch
to whom justice has never been properly done. He is represented by pious
but inaccurate historians, those men who for many years gave a false
character of jovial good nature to that gross thief and sacrilegious
monster, Henry VIII., as a King who spent most of his time in the
Playhouse, or in talking trivialities with gay ladies, and in making
witty remarks to all and sundry in his Court. The side of him that took
interest in shipbuilding, navigation, astronomy, in the founding of the
Royal Society, in the advancement of Art, in the minor matters of flower
gardening and bee-keeping is nearly always suppressed. It was largely
through his interest in this volume of Evelyn’s that the Royal forests
were properly replanted; and it was in a great measure due to Royal
interest that the parks and estates of the noblemen of England became
famous in after years for their beautiful timber.

In that part of the “Sylva” dealing with forest trees, there were a
hundred hints to all lovers of nature and of gardens, for your good
gardener is a man very near in his nature to a good strong tree, and
loves to observe the play of light and shade in the branches of those
that give shade to his garden walks.

Evelyn tells us how the Ash is the sweetest of forest fuelling, and the
fittest for Ladies’ Chambers, also for the building of Arbours, the
staking of Espaliers, and the making of Poles. The white rot of it makes
a ground for the Sweet-powder used by gallants. He tries to introduce
the Chestnut as food, saying how it is a good, lusty and masculine food
for Rustics; and commenting on the fact that the best tables in France
and Italy make them a service. He tells us how the water in which Walnut
husks and leaves are boiled poured on the carpet of walks and
bowling-greens infallibly kills the worms without hurting the grass.
That, by the way, is a matter for discussion among gardeners, seeing
that some say that the movements of worms from below the surface to
their cast on the lawn lets air among the grass roots and is good for
them.

He tells us how the Horn-beam makes the stateliest hedge for long garden
walks. He advises us how to make wine of the Birch, Ash, Elder, Oak,
Crab and Bramble. He praises the Service-Tree, and the Eugh, and the
Jasmine, saying of this last how one sorry tree in Paris where they grow
“has been worth to a poor woman, near twenty shillings a year.”

All this and much besides of diverting and instructive reading, varied
with remarks on the gardens of his friends and acquaintances, as when he
“cannot but applaud the worthy Industry of old _Sir Harbotle Grimstone_,
who (I am told) from a very small _Nursery of Acorns_ which he sowed in
the neglected corners of his ground, did draw forth such numbers of
_Oaks_ of competent growth; as being planted about his _Fields_ in even
and uniform rows, about one hundred foot from the _Hedges_; bush’d and
well water’d till they had sufficiently fix’d themselves, did
wonderfully improve both the beauty, and the value of his _Demeasnes_,”
for the honour and glory of filling England with fine trees and gardens
to improve, what he calls—the Landskip.

The exigencies of the present moment when Imperial Finance threatens to
tax all good parks and orchards out of existence, and to make all fine
flower gardens out of use, except to the enormously wealthy, makes the
“Gard’ners Calendar” all the more interesting as showing what manner of
flowers, fruits, and vegetables were in use in the Seventeenth Century,
and the means employed to grow and preserve them.

Then, as now, there was a danger of over cultivation of certain plants
and flowers, so that a man might have more pride in the number and
curiosity of his flowers, than in the beauty and colour of them. It is a
certain fault in modern gardeners that they do not study the grouping
and massing of colours, but do, more generally, take pride in over-large
specimens, great collections, and rare varieties. But this age and that
are times of collecting, of connoisseurship, ages that produce us great
art of their own but have an extraordinary knowledge of the arts and
devices of the past. Not that I would decry the friendly competitions of
this and that man to grow rare rock plants, or bloom exotics the one
against another, but I do most certainly prefer a rivalry in producing
beautiful effects of colour; and love better to see a great mass of
Roses growing free than to see one poor tree twisted into the semblance
of a flowering parasol as men now use in many of the small climbing
Roses.

To the end that gardeners and lovers of gardens may know how those past
gardeners treated their fruits and flowers, I give the whole of Evelyn’s
“Gard’ners Calendar,” than which no more complete account of gardens of
that time exists.

It would be as well to note, before arriving at our Seventeenth Century
Calendar, how the art of gardening had grown in England after the time
of the Romans.

From the time that every sign of the Roman occupation had been wiped out
to the beginning of the thirteenth century, gardens as we know them
to-day did not exist. The first attempts at gardens within castle walls
were little plots of herbs and shrubs with a few trees of Costard
Apples. It appears that all those plants and flowers the Romans
cultivated had been lost, and that with the sterner conditions of living
all such arrangements as arbours of cut Yew trees, or elaborate
Box-edged paths had completely vanished. Certainly they did have arbours
for shade, but of a simple kind and quite unlike the elaborate garden
houses the Romans built.

There were vineyards and wine made from them as early as the Eighth
Century, and in the reign of Edward the Third wine was made at Windsor
Castle by Stephen of Bourdeaux. The Cherry trees brought here by the
Romans had quite died out and were not recovered until Harris, Henry the
Eighth’s Irish fruiterer, grew them again at Sittingbourne. In the
Twelfth Century flower gardening again came in, and within the castle
walls pleasant gardens were laid out with little avenues of fruit trees,
and neat beds of flowers. Of the fruit trees there was the Costard
Apple, the only Apple of that time, from which great quantities of
cider—that “good-natured and potable liquor”—was made. There was the
great Wardon Pear, from which the celebrated Wardon pies were made; they
were Winter Pears from a stock originally cultivated by those great
horticulturists the Cistercian monks of Wardon in Bedfordshire. Then
there was also the Quince, called a Coyne, the Medlar, and I believe the
Mulberry, or More tree. In the borders, Strawberries, Raspberries,
Barberries and Currants were grown, that is in a well-stocked garden
such as the Earl of Lincoln had in Holborn in 1290. Then there was a
plot set aside as a Physic garden where herbs grew and salads of Rocket,
Lettuce, Mustard, Watercress, and Hops. In one place, probably
overlooking the pond or fountain which was the centre of such gardens,
was an arbour, and walks and smaller gardens were screened off by wattle
hedges. In that part of the garden devoted to flowers were Roses,
Lilies, Sunflowers, Violets, Poppies, Narcissi, Pervinkes or
Periwinkles. Lastly, and most important was the Clove Pink, or
Gilly-flower, a variety of Wallflower then called Bee-flower. Add to
this an apiary and you have a complete idea of the mediæval garden.

Later, in the Fifteenth Century came a new feature into the garden, a
mound built in the centre for the view, made sometimes of earth, but
very often of wood raised up as a platform, and having gaily carved and
painted stairways. These, with butts for archery, and bowling-greens,
and a larger variety of the old kinds of flowers, showed the principal
difference.

We come now to the gardens of the Sixteen Century, when flower gardening
was extremely popular. Spenser and the other poets are always describing
the beauties of flowers, and from these and old Herbals, from Bacon,
Shakespeare and other writers of that time, we are able to see how,
slowly but surely, the art of flower growing had advanced. The gardens
were very exact and formal, and were divided in geometrical patterns,
and grew large “seats” of Violets, Penny Royal, and Mint as well as
other herbs. Above all, a new addition to the mounds, archery butts and
bowling-greens, was the maze which had a place in every proper garden of
the Elizabethans.

The first garden where flower growing was taken really seriously
belonged to John Parkinson, a London apothecary who had a garden in Long
Acre. Great importance was given to smell, as is highly proper, and
flower gardens were bordered with Thyme, Marjoram and Lavender.
Highly-scented flowers were the most prized, and for this reason the
prime favourite the Carnation, was more grown than any other flower. Of
this there were fifty distinct varieties of every shape and size,
including the famous large Clove Pink, the golden coloured Sops-in-Wine.

With the increase in the variety of the Rose, of which about thirty
kinds were known, came the fashion, quickly universal, of keeping
potpourri of dried Rose leaves, many of which were imported from the
East, from whence, years before, had come quantities of Roses to supply
the demand in Winter in Rome.

As the fashion for growing flowers increased so, also, did the efforts
of gardeners to procure new and rare flowers from foreign countries, and
soon the Fritillary, Tulip and Iris were extensively cultivated, and
were treated with extraordinary care.

Following this came the rage for Anemones and Ranunculi, in which people
endeavoured to excel over their friends. And after that came in small
Chrysanthemums, Lilac or Blue Pipe tree, Lobelia, and the Acacia tree.

It will be seen that within quite a short space of time the old garden
containing few flowers, and only those as a rule that had some medicinal
properties, vanished before a perfect orgy of colour and wealth of
varieties; and that gardening for pleasure gave the people a new and
fascinating occupation. The rage for Anemones and for the different
kinds of Ranunculus developed until in the late Seventeenth Century the
madness, for it was nothing else, for Tulip collecting came in, to give
place still later to the Rose, and in our day only to be equalled by the
collection of Chrysanthemums and Orchids.

The best books previous to Evelyn’s “Sylva” are Gervase Markham’s
“Country House-Wife’s Garden,” (1617), and John Parkinson’s “Paradisus
in Sole” (1629).

One word more on the subject of flower mania. The rage for the Tulip
that attacked both English and Dutch in the late Seventeenth Century is
one of the most peculiar things in the history of gardening. The Tulip
is really a Persian flower, the shape of it suggesting the name,
thoulyban, a Persian turban. It was introduced into England about 1577,
by way of Germany, having been brought there by the German Ambassador
from Constantinople. By the Seventeenth Century there had developed such
a passion for this flower that it led to wreck and ruin of rich men who
paid fabulous sums for the bulbs, a single bulb being sold for a
fortune. One bulb of the Semper Augustus was sold for four thousand six
hundred florins, a new carriage, a pair of grey horses, and complete
harness. So great did the business in Tulips become that every Dutch
town had special Tulip exchanges, and there speculators assembled and
bid away vast sums to acquire rare kinds. The mania lasted about three
years, and was only finally stopped by the Government.

[Illustration: TULIPS IN “THE GARDEN OF PEACE.”]

————————————————————————

PART III

KALENDARIUM HORTENSE

————————————————————————

KALENDARIUM HORTENSE:
OR THE
GARD’NERS ALMANAC;

DIRECTING WHAT HE IS TO DO
MONETHLY
THROUGHOUT THE
YEAR

1664

————————————————————————

JANUARY.

_To be done_

IN THE ORCHARD, AND OLITORY GARDEN.

Trench the ground, and make it ready for the Spring: prepare also soil,
and use it where you have occasion: Dig Borders, &c., uncover as yet
Roots of Trees, where Ablaqueation is requisite.

Plant Quick-Sets, and Transplant Fruit-trees, if not finished: Set
Vines; and begin to prune the old: Prune the branches of
Orchard-fruit-trees; Nail, and trim your Wall-fruit, and Espaliers.

Cleanse Trees of Moss, &c., the weather moist.

Gather Cyons for graffs before the buds sprout; and about the later end,
Graff them in the Stock: Set Beans, Pease, etc.

Sow also (if you please) for early Colly-flowers.

Sow Chevril, Lettuce, Radish, and other (more delicate) Saleting; if you
will raise in the Hot-bed.

In over wet, or hard weather, cleanse, mend, sharpen and prepare
garden-tools.

Turn up your Bee-hives, and sprinkle them with a little warm and sweet
Wort; do it dextrously.

FRUITS IN PRIME, OR YET LASTING.

APPLES.

Kentish-pepin, Russet-pepin, Golden-pepin, French pepin, Kirton-pepin,
Holland-pepin, John-apple, Winter-queening, Mari-gold, Harvey-apple,
Pome-water, Pomeroy, Golden-Doucet, Reineting, Loues-pearmain,
Winter-Pearmain, etc.

PEARS.

Winter-husk (bakes well), Winter-Norwich (excellently baked),
Winter-Bergamot, Winter-Bon-crestien, both Mural: the great Surrein,
etc.

JANUARY.

_To be done_

IN THE PARTERRE, AND FLOWER GARDEN.

Set up your Traps for Vermin; especially in your Nurseries of Kernels
and Stones, and amongst your Bulbous-roots: About the middle of this
month, plant your Anemony-roots, which will be secure of, without
covering, or farther trouble: Preserve from too great and continuing
Rains (if they happen), Snow and Frost, your choicest Anemonies, and
Ranunculus’s sow’d in September, or October for earlier Flowers: Also
your Carnations, and such seeds as are in peril of being wash’d out, or
over chill’d and frozen; covering them with Mats and shelter, and
striking off the Snow where it lies too weighty; for it certainly rots,
and bursts your early-set Anemonies and Ranunculus’s, etc., unless
planted now in the Hot-bed; for now is the Season, and they will flower
even in London. Towards the end, earth-up, with fresh and light mould,
the Roots of those Auriculas which the frosts may have uncovered;
filling up the chinks about the sides of the Pots where your choicest
are set: but they need not be hous’d; it is a hardy Plant.

FLOWERS IN PRIME, OR YET LASTING.

Winter Aconite, some Anemonies, Winter Cyclamen, Black Hellebor,
Beumal-Hyacinth, Oriental-Jacynth, Levantine-Narcissus, Hepatica,
Prime-Roses, Laurustinus, Mezereon, Praecoce Tulips, etc., especially if
raised in the (Hot-bed).

NOTE.

That both these Fruits and Flowers are more early, or tardy, both as to
their prime Seasons of eating, and perfection of blowing, according as
the soil, and situation, are qualified by Nature or Accident.

NOTE ALSO

That in this Recension of Monethly Flowers, it is to be understood for
the whole period that any flower continues, from its first appearing, to
its final withering.

————————————————————————

FEBRUARY.

_To be done_

IN THE ORCHARD, AND OLITORY GARDEN.

Prime Fruit-trees, and Vines, as yet. Remove graffs of former year
graffing. Cut and lay Quick-sets. Yet you may Prune some Wall-fruit (not
finish’d before) the most tender and delicate: But be exceedingly
careful of the now turgid buds and bearers; and trim up your Palisade
Hedges, and Espaliers. Plant Vines as yet, and the Shrubs, Hops, etc.

Set all sorts of kernels and stony seeds. Also sow Beans, Pease, Radish,
Parsnips, Carrots, Onions, Garlick, etc., and Plant Potatoes in your
worst ground.

Now is your Season for Circumposition by Tubs, Baskets of Earth, and for
laying of Branches to take Root. You may plant forth your
Cabbage-plants.

Rub Moss off your Trees after a soaking Rain, and scrape and cleanse
them of Cankers, etc., draining away the wet (if need require) from the
too much moistened Roots, and earth up those Roots of your Fruit-trees,
if any were uncover’d. Cut off the webs of Caterpillars, etc. (from the
Tops of Twigs and Trees) to burn. Gather Worms in the evenings after
Rain.

Kitchen-Garden herbs may now be planted, as Parsly, Spinage, and other
hardy Pot-herbs. Towards the middle of later end of this Moneth, till
the Sap rises briskly, Graff in the Cleft, and so continue till the last
of March; they will hold Apples, Pears, Cherries, Plums, etc. Now also
plant out your Colly-flowers to have early; and begin to make your
Hot-bed for the first Melons and Cucumbers; but trust not altogether to
them. Sow Asparagus. Lastly,

Half open your passages for the Bees, or a little before (if weather
invite); but continue to feed weak Stocks, etc.

FRUITS IN PRIME, OR YET LASTING.

APPLES.

Kentish, Kirton, Russet, Holland Pepins; Deuxans, Winter Queening,
Harvey, Pome-water, Pomeroy, Golden Doucet, Reineting, Loues Pearmain,
Winter Pearmain, etc.

PEARS.

Bon-crestien of Winter, Winter Poppering, Little Dagobert, etc.

FEBRUARY.

_To be done_

IN THE PARTERRE, AND FLOWER GARDEN.

Continue Vermine Trapps, etc.

Sow Alaternus seeds in Cases, or open beds; cover them with thorns, that
the Poultry scratch them not out.

Now and then air your Carnations, in warm days especially, and mild
showers.

Furnish (now towards the end) your Aviarys with Birds before they
couple, etc.

[Illustration: APPLE TREES.]

FLOWERS IN PRIME, OR YET LASTING.

Winter Aconite, single Anemonies, and some double, Tulips praecoce,
Vernal Crocus, Black Hellebore, single Hepatica, Persian Iris, Leucoium,
Dens Caninus, three leav’d, Vernal Cyclamen, white and red. Yellow
Violets with large leaves, early Daffodils, etc.

————————————————————————

MARCH.

_To be done_

IN THE ORCHARD, AND OLITORY GARDEN.

Yet Stercoration is seasonable, and you may plant what trees are left,
though it be something of the latest, unless in very backward or moist
places.

Now is your chiefest and best time for raising on the Hot-bed Melons,
Cucumbers, Gourds, etc., which about the sixth, eighth or tenth day will
be ready for the seeds; and eight days after prick them forth at
distances, according to the method, etc.

If you have them later, begin again in ten or twelve days after the
first, and so a third time, to make Experiments.

Graff all this Moneth, unless the Spring prove extraordinary forwards.

You may as yet cut Quick-sets, and cover such Tree-roots as you laid
bare in Autumn.

Slip and set Sage, Rosemary, Lavender, Thyme, etc.

Sow in the beginning Endive, Succory, Leeks, Radish, Beets, Chard-Beet,
Scorzonera, Parsnips, Skirrets, Parsley, Sorrel, Buglos, Borrage,
Chevril, Sellery, Smalladge, Alisanders, etc. Several of which continue
many years without renewing, and are most of them to be blanch’d by
laying them under litter and earthing up.

Sow also Lettuce, Onions, Garlick, Okach, Parslan, Turneps (to have
early) monethly, Pease, etc. these annually.

Transplant the Beet-chard which you sow’d in August to have most ample
Chards. Sow also Carrots, Cabbages, Cresses, Fennel, Marjoram, Basil,
Tobacco, etc. And transplant any sort of Medicinal Hearbs.

Mid-March dress up and string your Strawberry-beds, and uncover your
Asparagus, spreading and loosening the Mould about them, for their more
easy penetrating. Also you may transplant Asparagus roots to make new
Beds.

By this time your Bees sit; keep them close Night and Morning, if the
weather prove ill. Turn your Fruit in the Room where it lies, but open
not yet the windows.

FRUITS IN PRIME, OR YET LASTING.

APPLES.

Golden Duchess (Doucet), Pepins, Reineting, Loues Pearmain, Winter
Pearmain, John-Apple, etc.

PEARS.

Later Bon-crestien, Double Blossom Pear, etc.

MARCH.

_To be done_

IN THE PARTERRE, AND FLOWER GARDEN.

Stake and binde up your weakest Plants and Flowers against the Windes,
before they come too fiercely, and in a moment prostrate a whole year’s
labour.

Plant Box, etc, in Parterres. Sow Pinks, Sweet Williams, and Carnations,
from the middle to the end of this Moneth. Sow Pine kernels, Firr-seeds,
Bays, Alatirnus, Phillyrea, and most perennial Greens, etc. Or you may
stay till somewhat later in the Moneth. Sow Auricula seeds in pots or
cases, in fine willow earth, a little loamy; and place what you sow’d in
October now in the shade and water it.

Plant some Anemony roots to bear late, and successively: especially in,
and about London, where the Smoak is anything tolerable; and if the
Season be very dry, water them well once in two or three days. Fibrous
roots may be transplanted about the middle of this Moneth; such as
Hepatica’s, Primeroses, Auricula’s, Camomile, Hyacinth, Tuberose,
Matricaria, Hellebor, and other Summer Flowers; and towards the end
Convolvulus, Spanish or ordinary Jasmine.

Towards the middle or latter end of March sow on the Hot-bed such Plants
as are late-bearing Flowers or Fruit in our Climate; as Balsamine, and
Balsamummas, Pomum Onions, Datura, Aethispic Apples, some choice
Amaranthmus, Dactyls, Geraniums, Hedysarum Clipeatum, Humble, and
Sensitive Plants, Lenticus, Myrtleberries (steep’d awhile), Capsicum
Indicum, Canna Indica, Flos Africanus, Mirabile Peruvian, Nasturtium
Ind., Indian Phaseoli, Volubilis, Myrrh, Carrots, Manacoe, fine flos
Passionis and the like rare and exotic plants which are brought us from
hot countries.

Note.—That the Nasturtium Ind., African Marygolds, Volubilis and some
others, will come (though not altogether so forwards) in the Cold-bed
without Art. But the rest require much and constant heat, and therefore
several Hot-beds, till the common earth be very warm by the advance of
the Sun, to bring them to a due stature, and perfect their Seeds.

About the expiration of this Moneth carry into the shade such Auriculas,
Seedlings or Plants as are for their choiceness reserv’d in Pots.

Transplant also Carnation seedlings, giving your layers fresh earth, and
setting them in the shade for a week, then likewise cut off all the sick
and infected leaves.

Now do the farewell-frosts, and Easterly-winds prejudice your choicest
Tulips, and spot them; therefore cover such with Mats or Canvass to
prevent freckles, and sometimes destruction. The same care have of your
most precious Anemonies, Auricula’s, Chamae-iris, Brumal Jacynths, Early
Cyclamen, etc. Wrap your shorn Cypress Tops with Straw wisps, if the
Eastern blasts prove very tedious. About the end uncover some Plants,
but with Caution; for the tail of the Frosts yet continuing, and sharp
winds, with the sudden darting heat of the Sun, scorch and destroy them
in a moment; and in such weather neither sow nor transplant.

Sow Stock-gilly-flower seeds in the Fall to produce double flowers.

Now may you set your Oranges, Lemons, Myrtils, Oleanders, Lentises,
Dates, Aloes, Amonumus, and like tender trees and Plants in the Portico,
or with the windows and doors of the Green-houses and Conservatories
open for eight or ten days before April, or earlier, if the Season
invite, to acquaint them gradually with the Air; but trust not the
Nights, unless the weather be thoroughly settled.

Lastly, bring in materials for the Birds in the Aviary to build their
nests withal.

FLOWERS IN PRIME, OR YET LASTING.

Anemonies, Spring Cyclamen, Winter Aconite, Crocus, Bellis, white and
black Hellebor, single and double Hepatica, Leucoion, Chamae-iris of all
colours, Dens Caninus, Violets, Fritillaria, Chelidonium, small with
double Flower, Hermodactyls, Tuberous Iris, Hyacinth, Zenboin, Brumal,
Oriental, etc. Junquils, great Chalic’d, Dutch Mezereon, Persian Iris,
Curialas, Narcissus with large tufts, common, double, and single, Prime
Roses, Praecoce Tulips, Spanish Trumpets or Junquilles; Violets, yellow
Dutch Violets, Crown Imperial, Grape Flowers, Almonds and
Peach-blossoms, Rubus odoratus, Arbour Judae, etc.

————————————————————————

APRIL.

_To be done_

IN THE ORCHARD, AND OLITORY GARDEN.

Sow Sweet Marjoram, Hyssop, Basile, Thyme, Winter-Savoury,
Scurvey-grass, and all fine and tender Seeds that require the Hot-bed.

Sow also Lettuce, Purslan, Caully-flower, Radish, etc.

Plant Artichoke-slips, etc.

Set French-beans, etc.

You may yet slip Lavender, Thyme, Rose-mary, etc.

Towards the middle of this moneth begin to plant forth your Melons and
Cucumbers, and to the late end; your Ridges well prepared.

Gather up Worms and Snails, after evening showers, continue this also
after all Summer rains.

Open now your Bee-hives, for now they hatch; look carefully to them, and
prepare your Hives, etc.

FRUITS IN PRIME, AND YET LASTING.

APPLES.

Pepins, Deuxans, West-berry Apples, Russeting, Gilly-flowers, flat
Reinet, etc.

PEARS.

Late Bon-crestien, Oak-pear, etc., double Blossom, etc.

APRIL.

_To be done_

IN THE PARTERRE, AND FLOWER GARDEN.

Sow divers Annuals to have Flowers all the Summer; as double Mari-golds,
Cyanus of all sorts, Candy-tufts, Garden-Pansy, Muscipula, Scabious,
etc.

Continue new, and fresh Hot-beds to entertain such exotic plants as
arrive not to their perfection without them, till the Air and common
earth be qualified with sufficient warmth to preserve them abroad. A
Catalogue of these you have in the former Moneth.

Transplant such Fibrous roots as you had not finished in March; as
Violets, Hepatica, Prim-roses, Hellebor, Matricaria, etc.

Sow Pinks, Carnations, Sweet-Williams, etc., to flower next year; this
after rain.

Set Lupines, etc.

Sow also yet Pine-kernels, Firr-seeds, Phillyrea, Alaternus, and most
perennial greens.

Now take out your Indian Tuberoses, parting the offsets (but with care,
lest you break their fangs), then pot them in natural (not forc’d)
Earth; a layer of rich mould beneath, and about this natural earth to
nourish the fibers, but not so as to touch the Bulbs; then plunge your
pots in a Hot-bed temperately warm, and give them no water till they
spring, and then set them under a South-wall. In dry weather water them
freely, and expect an incomparable flower in August. Thus likewise treat
the Narcissus of Japan, or Garnsey-Lilly, for a late flower, and make
much of this precious Direction.

[Illustration: DAFFODILS IN A MIDDLESEX GARDEN.]

Water Anemonies, Ranunculus’s, and Plants in Pots and Cases once in two
or three days, if drouth require it. But carefully protect from violent
Storms of Rain and Hail, and the too parching darts of the Sun, your
Pennach’d Tulips, Ranunculus’s, Anemonies, Auricula’s, covering them
with Mattresses supported on cradles of hoops, which have now in
readiness.

Now is the season for you to bring the choice and tender shrubs, etc.,
out of the Conservatory; such as you durst not adventure forth in March.
Let it be in a fair day; only your Orange-trees may remain in the house
till May, to prevent all danger.

Now, towards the end of April, you may Transplant and Remove your tender
shrubs, etc., as Spanish Jasmines, Myrtils, Oleanders, young Oranges,
Cyclamen, Pomegranats, etc., but first let them begin to sprout; placing
them a fort-night in the shade; but about London it may be better to
defer this work till August, vide also May. Prune now your Spanish
Jasmine within an inch or two of the stock; but first see it begin to
shoot. Mow Carpet-walks, and ply Weeding, etc.

Towards the end (if the cold winds are past) and especially after
showers, clip Philyrea, Alaternus, Cypress, Box, Myrtils, Barba Jovis,
and other tonsile shrubs, etc.

FLOWERS IN PRIME, OR YET LASTING.

Anemonies, Ranunculus’s, Auriculalirri, Chamae-Iris, Crown Imperial,
Caprisolium, Cyclamen, Dens Caninus, Fritillaria, double Hepaticas,
Jacynth starry, double Daisies, Florence-Iris, tufted Narcissus, white,
double and common, English Double, Prime-rose, Cow-slips, Pulsatilla,
Ladies-Smock, Tulips Medias, Ranunculus’s of Tripoly, white Violets,
Musk, Grape-flower, Parietaria Lutea, Leucoium, Lillies, Paeonies,
double Jonquils, Muscaria revers’d, Cochlearia, Periclymenum, Aicanthus,
Lilac, Rose-mary, Cherries, Wall-pears, Almonds, Abricots, White-Thorn,
Arbour Judae blossoming, etc.

————————————————————————

MAY.

_To be done_

IN THE ORCHARD, AND OLITORY GARDEN.

Sow Sweet-Marjoram, Basil, Thyme, hot and Aromatic Herbs, and Plants
which are the most tender.

Sow Parslan, to have young; Lettuce, large-sided Cabbage, painted Beans,
etc.

Look carefully to your Mellons; and towards the end of this moneth,
forbear to cover them any longer on the Ridges, either with straw or
mattresses, etc.

Ply the Laboratory, and distill Plants for Waters, Spirits, etc.

Continue Weeding before they run to Seeds.

Now set your Bees at full Liberty, look out often, and expect Swarms,
etc.



FRUITS IN PRIME, OR YET LASTING.

Pepins, Deuxans or John-Apples, West-berry-apples, Russeting,
Gilly-flower Apples, the Maligan, etc., Codling.

PEARS.

Great Kainville, Winter-Bon-cretienne, Double Blossom-pear, etc.

CHERRIES, ETC.

The May-Cherry, Straw-berries, etc.

MAY.

_To be done_

IN THE PARTERRE, AND FLOWER GARDEN.

Now bring your Oranges, etc., boldly out of the Conservatory; ’tis your
only Season to Transplant, and Remove them; let the Cases be fill’d with
natural-earth (such as is taken the first half spit, from just under the
Turf of the best Pasture ground), mixing it with one part of rotten
Cow-dung, or very mellow Soil screen’d and prepar’d some time before; if
this be too stiff, sift a little Lime discreetly with it. Then cutting
the Roots a little, especially at bottom, set your Plant; but not too
deep; rather let some of the Roots appear. Lastly, settle it with
temperate water (not too much) having put some rubbish of Brick-bats,
Lime-stones, Shells, or the like at the bottom of the Cases, to make the
moisture passage, and keep the earth loose. Then set them in the shade
for a fort-night, and afterwards expose them to the Sun.

Give now also all your hous’d-plants fresh earth at the surface, in
place of some of the old earth (a hand-depth or so) and loos’ning the
rest with a fork without wounding the Roots. Let this be of excellent
rich soil, such as is thoroughly consumed and with sift, that it may
wash in the vertue, and comfort the Plant. Brush, and cleanse them
likewise from the dust contracted during their Enclosure. These two last
directions have till now been kept as considerable secrets amongst our
gard’ners; vide August and September.

Shade your Carnations and Gilly-flowers after midday about this season.
Plant also your Stock Gilly-flowers in beds, full Moon.

Gather what Anemony-seed you find ripe, and that is worth saving,
preserving it very dry.

Cut likewise the stalks of such Bulbous-flowers as you find dry.

Towards the end, take up those Tulips which are dried in the stalk;
covering what you find to be bare from the Sun and showers.

FLOWERS IN PRIME, OR YET LASTING.

Late set Anemonies and Ranunculus nom. gen. Anapodophylon, Chamae-iris,
Angustifol, Cyanus, Columbines, Caltha Palustris, double Cotyledon,
Digitalis, Fraxinella, Gladiolus, Geranium, Horminum Creticum, yellow
Hemerocallis, strip’d Jacynth, early Bulbous Iris, Asphodel, Yellow
Lilies, Lychnis, Jacca, Bellis double, white and red, Millefolium
Liteum, Lilium Convalium, Span. Pinkes, Deptford-pinke, Rosa common,
Cinnamon, Guelder and Centifol, etc. Syringa’s, Sedunis, Tulips,
Serotin, etc. Valerian, Veronica double and single, Musk Violets, Ladies
Slipper, Stock-gilly-flowers, Spanish Nut, Star-flower, Chalcedons,
ordinary Crow-foot, red Martagon, Bee-flowers, Campanula’s white and
bleu, Persian Lilly, Honey-suckles, Buglosse, Homers Moly, and the white
of Dioscorides, Pansys, Prunella, purple Thalictrum, Sisymbrium, double
and single, Leucoium bulbosum serstinum, Rose-mary Stacchas, Barba
Jovis, Laurus, Satyrion, Oxyacanthus, Tamariscus, Apple-blossoms, etc.

————————————————————————

JUNE.

_To be done_

IN THE ORCHARD, AND OLITORY GARDEN.

Sow Lettuce, Chevril, Radish, etc., to have young and tender Salleting.

About the midst of June you may inoculate Peaches Abricots, Cherries,
Plums, Apples, Pears, etc.

You may now also (or before) cleanse Vines of exuberant branches and
tendrils, cropping (not cutting) and stopping the joynt immediately
before the Blossoms, and some of the under branches which bear no fruit;
especially in young Vineyards when they first begin to bear, and thence
forwards.

Gather Herbs in the Fall, to keep dry; they keep and retain their
virtue, and smell sweet, better dry’d in the shade than in the Sun,
whatever some pretend.

Now is your season to distill Aromatic Plants, etc.

Water lately planted Trees, and put moist and half-rotten Fearn, etc,
about the pot of their Stems.

Look to your Bees for Swarms, and Casts; and begin to destroy Insects
with Hooses, Canes, and tempting baits, etc. Gather Snails after rain,
etc.

FRUITS IN PRIME, OR YET LASTING.

APPLES.

Juniting (first ripe), Pepins, John-apples, Robillard, Red-Fennouil,
etc., French.

The Maudlin (first ripe), Madera, Green-Royal, St. Laurence Pear, etc.

CHERRIES, ETC.

Black.
Duke, Flanders, Heart Red.
White.

Luke-ward, early Flanders, the Common-cherry, Spanish-black,
Naples-Cherries, etc. Rasberries, Corinths, Straw-berries, Melons, etc.

JUNE.

_To be done_

IN THE PARTERRE, AND FLOWER GARDEN.

Transplant Autumnal Cyclamens now if you would change their place,
otherwise let them stand.

Gather ripe seeds of Flowers worth the saving, as of choicest Oriental
Jacynth, Narcissus (the two lesser, pale spurious Daffodels of a whitish
green often produce varieties), Auriculas, Ranunculus’s, etc., and
preserve them dry. Shade your Carnations from the afternoons Sun. Take
up your rarest Anemonies, and Ranunculus’s after rain (if it come
seasonable) the stalk wither’d, and dry the roots well. This about the
end of the moneth. In mid June inoculate Jasmine, Roses, and some other
rare shrubs. Sow now also some Anemony seeds. Take up your Tulip-bulbs,
burying such immediately as you find naked upon your beds; or else plant
them in some cooler place; and refresh over parched beds with water.
Plant your Narcissus of Japan (that rare flower) in Pots, etc. Also you
may now take up all such Plants and Flower-roots as endure not well out
of the ground, and replant them again immediately: such as the Early
Cyclamen, Jacynth Oriental, and other bulbous Jacynths, Iris,
Fritillaria, Crown-Imperial, Martagon, Muscario, Dens Caninus, etc. The
slips of Myrtil set in some cool and moist place do now frequently take
root. Also Cytisus lunatus will be multiplied by slips, such as are an
handful long that Spring. Look now to your Aviary; for now the Birds
grow sick of their feathers; therefore assist them with Emulsions of the
cooler seeds bruised water, as Melons, Cucumbers, etc. Also give them
Succory, Beets, Groundsel, Chickweed, etc.

FLOWERS IN PRIME, OR YET LASTING.

Amaranthus, Antirrhinum, Campanula, Clematis Pannonica, Cyanus,
Digitalis, Geranium, Horminum Creticum, Hieracium, bulbous Iris, and
divers others, Lychnis, var. generum, Martagon white and red,
Millefolium, white and yellow, Nasturtium Indicum, Carnations, Pinks,
Ornithogalum, Pansy, Phalangium Virginianum, darks-heel early.
Pilosella, Roses, Thalaspi Creticum, etc. Veronica, Viola pentaphyl,
Campions or Sultans, Mountain Lilies white and red; double Poppies,
Stock-jelly flowers, Jasmines, Corn-flag, Hollyhoc, Muscaria, serpyllum
Citratum, Phalangium Allobrogicum, Oranges, Rose-mary, Leuticus,
Pome-Granade, the Lime-tree, etc.

————————————————————————

JULY.

_To be done_

IN THE ORCHARD, AND OLITORY GARDEN.

Sow Lettuce, Radish, etc., to have tender salleting.

Sow later Pease to be ripe six weeks after Michaelmas.

Water young planted Trees, and Layers, etc., and prune now Abricots, and
Peaches, saving as many of the young likeliest shoots as are well
placed; for the new Bearers commonly perish, the new ones succeeding:
Cut close and even.

Let such Olitory-herbs run to seed as you would save.

Towards the later end, visit your Vineyards again, etc., and stop the
exuberant shoots at the second joint above the fruit; but not so as to
expose it to the Sun.

Now begin to straighten the entrance of your Bees a little; and help
them to kill their Drones if you observe too many; setting Glasses of
Beer mingled with Hony to entice the Wasps, Flyes, etc., which waste
your store: also hang Bottles of the same Mixture near your Red-Roman
Nectarines, and other tempting fruits for their destruction; else they
many times invade your best Fruit.

Look now also diligently under the leaves of Mural-Trees for the Snails;
they stick commonly somewhat above the fruit: pull not off what is
bitten; for then they will certainly begin afresh.

[Illustration: A POET’S ORCHARD IN KENT.]

FRUITS IN PRIME, OR YET LASTING.

APPLES.

Deuxans, Pepins, Winter-Russeting, Andrew-apples, Cinnamon-apple, red
and white Juiniting, the Margaret-apple, etc.

PEARS.

The Primat, Russet-pears, Summer-pears, green Chesil-pears, Pearl-pear,
etc.

CHERRIES.

Carnations, Morella, Great-bearer, Morocco-cherry, the Egriot,
Bigarreaux, etc.

PEACHES.

Nutmeg, Isabella, Persian, Newington, Violet-muscat, Rambouillet.

PLUMS, ETC.

Primordial, Myrobalan, the red, bleu, and amber Violet, Damax, Deuny
Damax, Pear-plum, Damax, Violet or Cheson-plum, Abricot-plum,
Cinnamon-plum, the Kings-plum, Spanish, Morocco-plum, Lady Eliz. Plum,
Tawny, Damascene, etc.

Rasberries, Goose-berries, Corinths, Straw-berries, Melons, etc.

JULY.

_To be done_

IN THE PARTERRE, AND FLOWER GARDEN.

Slip Stocks and other lignous Plants and Flowers: From henceforth to
Michaelmas you may also lay Gilly-flowers and Carnations for Increase,
leaving not above two, or three spindles for flowers, with supports,
cradles, and hooses, to establish them against winds, and destroy
Earwigs.

The Layers will (in a moneth or six weeks) strike root, being planted in
a light loamy earth mix’d with excellent rotten soil and seifted: plant
six or eight in a pot to save room in Winter: keep them well from too
much Rains: but shade those which blow from the afternoons Sun, as in
the former Moneths.

Yet also you may lay Myrtils, and other curious Greens.

Water young planted Shrubs and Layers, etc., as Orange-trees, Myrtils,
Granades, Amomum, etc.

Clip Box, etc., in Parterres, knots, and Compartiments, if need be, and
that it grow out of order; do it after Rain.

Graff by Approach, Trench, or Innoculate Jasmines, Oranges, and your
other choicest shrubs. Take up your early autumnal Cyclamen, Tulips and
Bulbs (if you will Remove them, etc.) before mention’d; Transplanting
them immediately, or a Moneth after if you please, and then cutting off,
and trimming the fibres, spread them to Air in some dry place.

Gather now also your early Cyclamen-seeds, and sow it presently in Pots.

Likewise you may now take up some Anemonies, Ranunculus’s, Crocus, Crown
Imperial, Persian Iris, Fritillaria, and Colchicums, but plant the three
last as soon as you have taken them up, as you did the Cyclamens.

Remove now your Dens Canivus, etc.

Latter end of July seift your Beds for Off-sets of Tulips, and all
Bulbous-roots, also for Anemonies—Ranunculus’s, etc, which will prepare
it for replanting with such things as you have ready in pots to plunge,
or set in naked earth till the next season; as Amaranths, Canna Ind.,
Mirabile Peruv., Capsicum Ind., Nasturt. Ind., etc., that they may not
be empty and disfurnished.

Continue to cut off the wither’d stalks of your lower flowers, etc., and
all others, covering with earth the bared roots, etc.

Now (in the driest season) with Brine, Pot-ashes, and water, or a
decoction of Tobacco refuse, water your gravel-walks, etc., to destroy
both worms and weeds, of which it will cure them for some years.

FLOWERS IN PRIME, OR YET LASTING.

Amanauthus, Campanula, Clematis, Sultana, Veronica purple and
odoriferous; Digitalis, Eryugium, Planum, Ind. Phaseolus, Geranium
triste, and Creticum, Lychnis Chalcaedon Jacea white and double,
Nasturt. Ind. Multefolium, Musk-rose, Flos Africanus, Thlaspi Creticum,
etc. Veronica mag. and parva, Volubilis, Balsam-apple, Hollyhock,
Snapdragon, Cornflo, Alkekengi, Lupius, Scorpion-grass, Caryophlata om.
gen. Stock-gilly-flo, Indian Tuberous Jacynth, Limonium, Linaria
Cretica, Pansies, Prunella, Delphinium, Phalangium, Perploca Virgin,
Flos Passionis, Flos Cardinalis, Oranges, Amomum Plinii, Oleanders red
and white, Agnus Castus, Arbutus, Yucca, Olive, Lignateum, Tilia, etc.

————————————————————————

AUGUST.

_To be done_

IN THE ORCHARD, AND OLITORY GARDEN.

Inoculate now early, if before you began not.

Prune off yet also superfluous Branches, and shoots of this second
spring; but be careful not to expose the fruit, without leaves
sufficient to skreen it from the Sun, furnishing, and nailing up what
you will spare to cover the defects of your Walls. Pull up the suckers.

Sow Raddish, tender Cabages, Cauly-flowers for Winter Plants,
Corn-sallet, Marygolds, Lettuce, Carrots, Parnseps, Turneps, Spinage,
Onions; also curl’d Endive, Angelica, Scurvy-grass, etc. Likewise now
pull up ripe Onions and Garlic, etc.

Towards the end sow Purslan, Chard-Beet, Chervile, etc.

Transplant such Letuce as you will have abide all Winter.

Gather your Olitory-Seeds, and clip and cut all such Herbs and Plants
within a handful of the ground before the fall. Lastley:

Unbind and release the buds you inoculated if taken, etc.

Now vindemiate and take your Bees towards the expiration of this Moneth;
unless you see cause (by reason of the Weather and Season) to defer it
till mid-September: But if your Stocks be very light and weak begin the
earlier.

Make your Summer Perry and Cider.

FRUITS IN PRIME, OR YET LASTING.

APPLES.

The Ladies Longing, the Kirkham Apple, John Apple; the Seaming Apple,
Cushion Apple, Spicing, May-flower, Sheeps-snout.

PEARS.

Windsor, Soveraign, Orange, Bergamot, Slipper Pearl, Red Catherine, King
Catherine, Denny Pear, Prussia Pear, Summer Poppering, Sugar Pear,
Lording Pea, etc.

PEACHES.

Roman Peach, Man Peach, Quince Peach, Rambouillet, Musk Peach, Grand
Carnation, Portugal Peach, Crown Peach, Bourdeaux Peach, Lavar Peach,
the Peach de-lepot, Savoy Malacoton, which lasts till Michaelmas, etc.

NECTARINES.

The Muroy Nectarine, Tawny, Red-Roman, little Green Nectarine, Chester
Nectarine, Yellow Nectarine.

PLUMS.

Imperial, Bleu, White Dates, Yellow Pear-plum, Black Pear-plum, White
Nut-meg, late Pear-plum, Great Anthony, Turkey Plum, the Jane Plum.

OTHER FRUIT.

Cluster Grape, Muscadine, Corinths, Cornelians, Mulberries, Figs,
Filberts, Melons, etc.

AUGUST.

_To be done_

IN THE PARTERRE, AND FLOWER GARDEN.

Now (and not till now if you expect success) is the just Season for the
budding of the Orange Tree: Inoculate therefore at the commencement of
this Moneth.

Now likewise take up your bulbous Iris’s; or you may sow their seeds, as
also those of Larks-heel, Candy-tufts, Iron-colour’d Fox-gloves,
Holly-hocks, and such plants as Endive Winter, and the approaching
Seasons.

Plant some Anemony roots to have flowers all Winter, if the roots
escape.

You may now sow Narcissus, and Oriental Jacynths, and replant such as
will not do well out of the Earth, as Fritillaria, Iris, Hyacinths,
Martagon, Dens Canivus.

Gilly-flowers may yet be slipp’d.

Continue your taking of Bulbs, Lilies, etc., of which before.

Gather from day to day your Alaternus seed as it grows black and ripe,
and spread it to sweat and dry before you put it up; therefore move it
sometimes with a broom that the seeds may not clog together.

Most other seeds may now likewise be gathered from Shrubs, which you
find ripe.

About mid-Aug. transplant Auricula’s, dividing old and lusty roots; also
prick out your Seedlings: They best like a loamy sand or light moist
Earth.

Now you may sow Anemony seeds, Ranunculus’s, etc., lightly covered with
fit mould in Cases, shaded, and frequently refresh’d: Also Cyclamen,
Jacynths, Iris, Hepatica, Primroses, Fritillaria, Martagon, Fraxinella,
Tulips, etc., but with patience; for some of them because they flower
not till three, four, five, six or seven years after, especially the
Tulips, therefore disturb not their beds, and let them be under some
warm place shaded yet, till the heats are past, lest the seeds dry; only
the Hepaticas, and Primeroses may be sow’d in some less expos’d Beds.

Now, about Bartholomew-tide, is the only secure season for removing and
laying your perenial Greens, Oranges, Lemmons, Myrtils, Phillyreas,
Oleanders, Jasmines, Arbutus, and other rare Shrubs, as Pome-granads,
Roses, and whatever is most obnoxious to frosts, taking the shoots and
branches of the past Spring and pegging them down in a very rich earth
and soil perfectly consum’d, water them upon all occasions during the
Summer; and by this time twelve-moneth they will be ready to remove,
Transplanted in fit earth, set in the shade, and kept moderately moist,
not over wet, lest the young fibers rot; after three weeks set them in
some more airy place, but not in the Sun till fifteen days more; vide
our Observation in April, and May, for the rest of these choice
Directions.

FLOWERS IN PRIME, OR YET LASTING.

Amaranthus, Anagallis Lusitanica, Aster Atticus, Blattaria, Spanish
Bells, Bellevedere, Campanula, Clematis, Cyclamen Vernum, Datura
Turtica, Eliochryson, Eryngium planum, Amethystium, Geranium Creticum
and Triste, Yellow Stocks, Hieracion minus Alpestre, Tube-rose Hyacinth,
Limonium, Linaria Cretica, Lychnis, Nimabile Peruvian, Yellow Millefoil,
Nasturt: Ind. Yellow mountain Hearts-ease, Manacoc, Africanus Flos,
Convolvulus’s, Scabious, Asphodels, Lupines, Colchicum, Lencoion,
Autumnal Hyacinth, Holly-hoc, Star-wort, Heliotrop, French Mary-gold,
Daisies, Geranium nocte oleus, Common Pansies, Larks-heels of all
colours, Nigella, Lobello, Catch-fly, Thalaspi Creticum, Rosemary,
Musk-rose, Monethly Rose, Oleanders, Spanish Jasmine, Yellow Indian
Jasmine, Myrtils, Oranges, Pome-granads double and single flowers, Agnus
Cactus, etc.

[Illustration: A KENTISH GARDEN IN AUTUMN.]

————————————————————————

SEPTEMBER.

_To be done_

IN THE ORCHARD, AND OLITORY GARDEN.

Gather now (if ripe) your Winter Fruits, as Apples, Pears, Plums, etc.,
to prevent their falling by the great Winds: Also gather your Wind-falls
from day to day; do this work in dry weather.

Sow Lettuce, Radish, Spinage, Parsneps, Skirrets, etc. Cauly-flowers,
Cabbage, Onions, etc. Scurvy-grass, Anis-seeds, etc.

Now you may Transplant most sorts of Esculent, or Physical plants, etc.

Also Artichocks, and Asparagus-roots.

Sow also Winter Herbs and Roots, and plant Strawberries out of the
Woods.

Towards the end, earth up your Winter plants and Sallad herbs; and plant
forth your Cauly-flowers and Cabbages which were sown in August.

No longer now defer the taking of your Bees, streightening the entrances
of such Hives as you leave to a small passage, and continue still your
hostility against Wasps, and other robbing Insects.

Cider-making continues.

FRUITS IN PRIME, OR YET LASTING.

APPLES.

The Belle-bonne, the William, Summer Pearmain, Lordling-apple,
Pear-apple, Quince-apple, Red-greening ribbed, Bloody-Pepin, Harvey,
Violet-apple, etc.

PEARS.

Hamdens, Bergamot (first ripe), Summer Bon-crestien, Norwich, Black
Worcester (baking), Green-field, Orange, Bergamot, the Queen hedge-pear,
Lewes-pear (to dry excellent), Frith-pear, Arundel-pear (also to bake),
Brunswick-pear, Winter Poppering, Bings-pear, Bishops-pear (baking),
Diego, Emperours-pear, Cluster-pear, Messire Jean, Rowling-pear,
Balsam-pear, Bezy d’Hery, etc.

PEACHES, ETC.

Malacoton, and some others, if the year prove backwards, almonds, etc.

Quinces.

Little Bleu-grape, Muscadine-grape, Frontiniac, Parsley, great
Bleu-grape, the Verjuyce-grape, excellent for sauce, etc.

Bexberries, etc.

SEPTEMBER.

_To be done_

IN THE PARTERRE, AND FLOWER GARDEN.

Plant some of all the sorts of Anemonies after the first rains, if you
will have flowers very forwards; but it is surer to attend till October,
or the Moneth after, lest the over moisture of the Autumnal seasons give
you cause to repent.

Begin now also to plant some Tulips, unless you will stay until the
later end of October, to prevent all hazard of rotting the Bulbs.

All Fibrous Plants, such as Hepatica, Hellebor, Cammomile, etc. Also the
Capillaries; Matricaria, Violets, Prim-roses, etc., may now be
transplanted.

Now you may also continue to grow Alaternus, Philyrea (or you may
forbear till the Spring), Iris, Crown Imper; Martagon, Tulips,
Delphinium, Nigella, Candy-tufts, Poppy; and generally all the Annuals
which are not impair’d by the Frosts.

Your Tuberoses will not endure the wet of this Season; therefore set the
Pots into your Conserve, and keep them very dry.

Bind up now your Autumnal Flowers, and Plants to stakes, to prevent
sudden gusts which will else prostrate all you have so industriously
rais’d.

About Michaelmas (sooner, or later, as the Season directs) the weather
fair, and by no means foggy, retire your choice Greens, and rarest
Plants (being dry) as Oranges, Lemmons, Indian and Span. Jasmine,
Oleanders, Barba-Jovis, Amomum Plin. Citysus Lunatus, Chamalaca
tricoccos, Cistus Ledon Clussii, Dates, Aloes, Seduns, etc., into your
Conservatory; ordering them with fresh mould, as you were taught in May,
viz. taking away some of the utmost exhausted earth, and stirring up the
rest, fill the Cases with rich, and well consumed soil, to wash in, and
nourish the roots during Winter; but as yet leaving the doors and
windows open, and giving them much Air, so the Winds be not sharp, nor
weather foggy; do thus till the cold being more intense advertise you to
enclose them altogether: Myrtils will endure abroad neer a Moneth
longer.

The cold now advancing, set such plants as will not endure the House
into the earth; the pots two or three inches lower than the surface of
some bed under a Southern exposure: then cover them with glasses, having
cloath’d them first with sweet and dry Moss; but upon all warm, and
benigne emissions of the Sun and sweet showers, giving them air, by
taking off all that covers them: Thus you shall preserve all your costly
and precious Marum Syriacum, Cistus’s, Geranium nocte olens, Flos
Cardinalis, Maracoco, seedling Arbutus’s (a very hardy plant when
greater), choicest Ranunculus’s, and Anemonies, Acacia Aegypt, etc. Thus
governing them till April.

Secrets not till now divulg’d.

Note that Cats will eat, and destroy your Marum Syriac, if they can come
at it.

FLOWERS IN PRIME, OR YET LASTING.

Amaranthus tricolor, and others; Anagallis of Portugal, Antirrhinum,
African flo. Amomum, Plinii, Aster Atticus, Belvedere, Bellies,
Campanula’s, Colchicum, Autumnal Cyclamen, Chrysanthemum angustifol,
Eupatorium of Canada, Sun-flower, Stock-gill-flo. Geranium Creticum and
nocte olens, Gentianella annual, Hieracion minus Alpestre, Tuberous
Indian Jacynth, Linaria Cretica, Lychnis Constant. single and double;
Limonium, Indian Lilly Narciss. Pomum Aureum, and Amoris, etc., Spinosum
Ind. Marvel of Peru, Mille-folium, yellow, Nasturtium Indicum, Persian
Autumnal Narcissus, Virgianium Phalagium, Indian Phaseolus, Scarlet
Beans, Convolvulus divers. gen., Candy Tufts, Veronica, purple
Volubilis, Asphodil, Crocus, Garnsey Lily, or Narcissus of Japan, Poppy
of all colours, single and double, Malva arborescens, Indian Pinks,
Aethiopic Apples, Capsicum Ind. Gilly-flowers, Passion-flower, Dature
double and single, Portugal Ranunculus’s, Spanish Jasmine, yellow
Virginian Jasmine, Rhododendron, white and red, Oranges, Myrtils, Muske
Rose, and Monethly Rose, etc.

————————————————————————

OCTOBER.

_To be done_

IN THE ORCHARD, AND OLITORY GARDEN.

Trench Grounds for Orcharding, and the Kitchin-garden, to lye for a
Winter mellowing.

Plant dry Trees (i) Fruit of all sorts, Standard, Mural or Shrubs, which
lose their lease; and that so soon as it falls: But be sure you chuse no
Trees for the Wall of above two years Graffing at the most.

Now is the time for Ablaqueation, and laying bare the Roots of old
unthriving, or over hasty blooming trees.

Moon now decreasing, gather Winter-fruit that remains, weather dry; take
heed of bruising; lay them up clean lest they Taint, Cut and prune Roses
yearly.

Plant and Plash Quick-sets.

Sow all stony, and hard kernels and seeds, such as Cherry, Pear-plum,
Peach, Almond-stones, etc. Also Nuts, Haws, Ashen, Sycomor and Maple
keys; Acorns, Beech-mast, Apple, Pear and Crab Kernel, for Stocks; or
you may defer it till the next Moneth towards the later end. You may yet
sow Letuce.

Make Winter Cider, and Perry.

FRUITS IN PRIME, AND YET LASTING.

APPLES.

Belle-et-Bonne, William, Costard, Lordling, Parsley-apples, Pearmain,
Pear-apple, Honey-meal, Apis, etc.

PEARS.

The Caw-pear (baking), Green-butter-pear, Thorn-pear, Clove-pear,
Roussel-pear, Lombart-pear, Russet-pear, Suffron-pear, and some of the
former Moneth.

Bullis, and divers of the September Plums and Grapes, Pines, etc.

OCTOBER.

_To be done_

IN THE PARTERRE, AND FLOWER GARDEN.

Now your Hyacinthus Tuberose not enduring the wet, must be set into the
house, and preserved very dry till April.

Continue sowing what you did in September, if you please: Also,

You may plant some Anemonies, and Ranunculus’s, in fresh sandish earth,
taken from under the turf; but lay richer mould at the bottom of the
bed, which the fibres may reach, but not to touch the main roots, which
are to be covered with the natural earth two inches deep: and so soon as
they appear, secure them with Mats, or Straw, from the winds and frosts,
giving them air in all benigne intervals; if possible once a day.

Plant also Ranunculus’s of Tripoly, etc.

Plant now your choice Tulips, etc., which you feared to interre at the
beginning of September; they will be more secure and forward enough: but
plant them in natural earth somewhat impoverish’d with very fine sand;
else they will soon lose their variegations; some more rich earth may
lye at the bottom, within reach of the fibres: Now have a care your
Carnations catch not too much wet; therefore retire them to covert,
where they may be kept from the rain, not the air, Trimming them with
fresh mould.

All sorts of Bulbous roots may now be safely buried; likewise Iris’s,
etc.

You may yet sow Alaternus, and Phillyrea seeds; it will now be good to
Beat, Roll, and Mow Carpet-walks, and Camomile; for now the ground is
supple, and it will even all inequalities: Finish your last weeding,
etc.

Sweep and cleanse your Walks, and all other places, of Autumnal leaves
fallen, lest the worms draw them into their holes, and foul your
Gardens, etc.

FLOWERS IN PRIME, OR YET LASTING.

Amaranthus tricolor, etc. Aster Atticus, Amomum, Antirrhinum, Colchicum,
Heliotrope, Stock-gilly-flo., Geranium triste, Ind. Tuberose Jacynth,
Limonium, Lychnis white and double, Pomum Amoris and Aethiop., Marvel of
Peru, Millefol. luteum, Autumnal Narciss., Pansies, Aleppo Narciss.,
Sphaerical Narciss., Nasturt., Persicum, Gilly-flo., Virgin Phalangium,
Pilosella, Violets, Veronica, Arbutus, Span. Jasmine Oranges.

————————————————————————

NOVEMBER.

_To be done_

IN THE ORCHARD, AND OLITORY GARDEN.

Carry Comfort out of your Melon-ground, or turn and mingle it with the
earth, and lay it in ridges ready for the Spring: Also trench and fit
ground for Artichocks, etc.

Continue your Setting and Transplanting of Trees; lose no time, hard
frosts come on apace; yet you may lay bare old Roots.

Plant young Trees, Standards or Mural.

Furnish your Nursery with Stocks to graff on the following year.

Sow and set early Beans and Pease till Shrove-tide; and now lay up in
your Cellars for Seed, to be Transplanted at Spring, Carrots, Parsneps,
Turneps, Cabbages, Cauly-flowers, etc.

Cut off the tops of Asparagus, and cover it with long-dung, or make Beds
to plant in Spring, etc.

Now, in a dry day, gather your last Orchard-fruits.

Take up your Potatoes for Winter spending, there will be enough remain
for stock, though never so exactly gather’d.

[Illustration: A HAMPSTEAD GARDEN IN WINTER.]

FRUITS IN PRIME, OR YET LASTING.

APPLES.

The Belle-bonne, the William, Summer Pearmain, Lordling-apple,
Pear-apple, Cardinal, Winter Chessnut, Short-start, etc., and some
others of the former two last Moneths, etc.

PEARS.

Messire Jean, Lord-pear, long Bergamot, Warden (to bake), Burnt Cat,
Sugar-pear, Lady-pear, Ice-pear, Dove-pear, Deadmans-pear, Winter
Bergamot, Belle-pear, etc.

Bullis, Medlars, Services.

NOVEMBER.

_To be done_

IN THE PARTERRE, AND FLOWER GARDEN.

Sow Auricula seeds thus: prepare very rich earth more than half dung,
upon that seift some very light sandy mould; and then sow; set your
Cases or Pans in the Sun till March. Cover your peeping Ranunculus’s,
etc.

Now is your best season (the weather open) to plant your fairest Tulips
in place of shelter, and under Espaliers; but let not your earth be too
rich, vide Octob. Transplant ordinary Jasmine, etc. About the middle of
this Moneth (or sooner, if weather require) quite enclose your tender
Plants, and perennial Greens, Shrubs, etc., in your Conservatory,
secluding all entrance of cold, and especially sharp winds; and if the
Plants become exceeding dry, and that it do not actually freeze, refresh
them sparingly with qualified water mingled with a little sheeps or
Cow-dung: If the Season prove exceeding piercing (which you may know by
the freezing of a dish of water set for that purpose in your
Green-house) kindle some Charcoal, and then put them in a hole sunk a
little into the floor about the middle of it: This is the safest stove:
at all other times when the air is warmed by the beams of a fine day,
and that the Sun darts full upon the house shew them the light; but
enclose them again before the sun be gone off: Note that you must never
give your Aloes, or Sedums one drop of water during the whole Winter.

Prepare also Mattresses, Boxes, Cases, Pots, etc., for shelter to your
tender Plants and Seedlings newly sown, if the weather prove very
bitter.

Plant Roses, Althæa Frutex, Lilac, Syringas, Cytisus, Peonies, etc.

Plant also Fibrous roots, specified in the precedent Moneth.

Sow also stony-seeds mentioned in Octob.

Plant all Forest-trees for Walks, Avenues, and Groves.

Sweep and cleanse your Garden-walks, and all other places, of Autumnal
leaves.

FLOWERS IN PRIME, OR YET LASTING.

Anemonies, Meadow Saffron, Antirrhinum, Stock-gilly-flo., Bellis,
Pansies, some Carnations, double Violets, Veronica, Spanish Jasmine,
Musk Rose, etc.

————————————————————————

DECEMBER.

_To be done_

IN THE ORCHARD, AND OLITORY GARDEN.

Prune, and Nail Wall-fruit, and Standard-trees.

You may now plant Vines, etc.

Also Stocks for Graffing, etc.

Sow, as yet, Pomace of Cider-pressings to raise Nurseries; and set all
sorts of Kernels, Stones, etc.

Sow for early Beans, and Pease, but take heed of the Frosts; therefore
surest to defer it till after Christmas, unless the Winter promise very
moderate.

All this Moneth you may continue to Trench Ground and dung it, to be
ready for Bordures, or the planting of Fruit-trees, etc.

Now seed your weak Stocks.

Turn and refresh your Autumnal Fruit, lest it taint and open the Windows
where it lyes, in a clear and Serene day.

FRUITS IN PRIME, OR YET LASTING.

APPLES.

Rousseting, Leather-coat, Winter-reed, Chest-nut Apple, Great-belly, the
Go-no-further, or Cats-head, with some of the precedent Moneth.

PEARS.

The Squib-pear, Spindle-pear, Virgin, Gascoyne-Bergomot, Scarlet-pear,
Stopple-pear, white, red, and French Wardens (to bake or roast), etc.

DECEMBER.

_To be done_

IN THE PARTERRE, AND FLOWER GARDEN.

As in January, continue your hostility against Vermine.

Preserve from too much Rain and Frost your choicest Anemonies,
Ranunculus’s, Carnations, etc.

Be careful now to keep the Doors and Windows of your Conservatories well
matted, and guarded from the piercing Air: for your Oranges, etc., are
now put to the test: Temper the cold with a few Char-coal govern’d as
directed in November, etc.

Set Bay-berries, etc., dropping ripe.

Look to your Fountain-pipes, and cover them with fresh and warm litter
out of the stable, a good thickness lest the frosts crack them; remember
it in time, and the Advice will save far both trouble and charge.

FLOWERS IN PRIME, OR YET LASTING.

Anemonies some, Persian, and Common Winter Cyclamen, Antirrhinum, Black
Hellebor, Laurus tinus, single Prim-roses, Stock-gilly-flo., Iris
Clusii, Snowflowers, or drops, Yucca, etc.