alkali is washed out

=Treatment of Straw.=–As a paper-making material, the employment of straw is of very early date, a patent for producing paper from straw having been taken out by Matthias Koops as far back as 1801. The material, however, was used in its unbleached state, and formed a very ugly paper. White paper was not obtained from straw until 1841, but no really practical method of treating this material was devised until…

since nitric acid forms with cellulose

The advantages of wood fibre as a paper material have been fully recognised in the United States and in many Continental countries, but more especially in Norway, Sweden, and Germany, from whence large quantities of wood pulp are imported into this country. There is no doubt that our home manufacturers have recently paid much attention to this material, and it is highly probable that wood, as an inexhaustible source of…

Preliminary Operations

Before the rags are submitted to the various processes which constitute the art of paper-making, they are subjected to certain preliminary operations to free them from dirty matters, dust, and even sand, which is sometimes fraudulently introduced into rags to increase their weight. This preliminary treatment may be classified under the following heads, namely:–Sorting; Cutting; Willowing; Dusting. =Sorting.=–The rags being removed from the bags or bales in which they are…

CELLULOSE

Cellulose.–Action of Acids on Cellulose.–Physical Characteristics of Cellulose.–Micrographic Examination of Vegetable Fibres.–Determination of Cellulose.–Recognition of Vegetable Fibres by the Microscope. =Cellulose.=–Vegetable fibre, when deprived of all incrusting or cementing matters of a resinous or gummy nature, presents to us the true fibre, or _cellulose_, which constitutes the essential basis of all manufactured paper. Fine linen and cotton are almost pure cellulose, from the fact that the associated vegetable substances have…

This work is based

WHEN a disabled man has been fitted with an artificial limb he has to learn a trade which will enable him to supplement his pension and provide for himself and his family. In our opinion, which we believe we have expressed more than once in this book, it is nearly always advisable to determine what profession will ultimately be possible before ordering the artificial limb. This principle is perhaps not…

For reasons

In this chapter we shall deal only with amputation of the arm below the upper third, _i.e._ with cases in which the stump is long enough to transmit movements to the artificial limb. Amputation through the deltoid muscle must be considered in association with disarticulation of the shoulder. Below the arm socket is attached an artificial limb which represents the elbow joint, forearm, and hand. There are two types to…

Removal of a marginal

This name should be applied to amputations in which the mobility of the ankle joint is retained, _i.e._ Chopart’s amputation (midtarsal disarticulation), Lisfranc’s amputation (tarso metatarsal disarticulation), amputation of several toes with their metatarsal bones, or amputation of all five toes. 1. _The amputations of Chopart and Lisfranc._–Chopart’s amputation has a grave defect: the anterior muscles have not sufficient leverage to oppose this gastrocnemius and soleus, and the posterior tarsal…

If the leg stump

Attempts have been made to attach to the pelvis, by means of a waist belt or braces, a wooden artificial limb whose upper end is fitted directly on to the tuberosity of the ischium. So far these have met with little success. In our opinion, the only really practical method is to enclose the whole stump and pelvis in a regular corset, and to attach the artificial limb to this…

curretting the foci

Whether we are dealing with an amputation of the leg or an amputation of the thigh, the principle function of the artificial limb is to support the weight of the body. The bucket must therefore give support to this weight. Three bearing points are thus possible: at the base, upon the surface and upon the end of the stump. 1. _Bearing upon the base._–The principal bearing is that which is…

COUNTRY

The captain’s party returned from To hausen’s village about sunset. He said that he had had an amicable and satisfactory talk with the old chief and his followers, all of whom reiterated their former professions of friendship for the whites and declared that they would have no intercourse with the hostiles. “We’ve got to take that,” said Wild Bill, who had been interpreter at the talk, “with a grain of…