As the saying goes, “need to be the mother of invention”, but many inventors may not be admitted that “luck” is sometimes the mother of invention. Many people think that in the history of science, many great inventions are the results of the study of scientists’ sleepless nights. However, in fact, many of the most famous and most popular inventions in human history are actually “luck”.
Although the Italian Italian Antonio Muchi is the real inventor of the phone, but people tend to today’s convenient telephone communication network, and even the invention of the phone itself, thanks to Alexander Bell.
In the mid-nineteenth century, telegraphy of information flow speed greatly accelerated, but also let some people began to think about whether the direct transmission of sound cable, which included Bell. At that time, he was experimenting with a machine that could send multiple telegrams on the same line. In a test, a flexible metal on the transmitter was placed on the next electromagnet. When Bell’s assistant Watson untied the metal, Bell found that the same position on the receiver metal also occurred in the shock.
The accident opened the idea of Bell. He realizes that if the person speaks to a piece of iron, the sound will cause the iron to vibrate; if an electromagnet is placed behind the iron, the vibration of the iron is bound to produce a large current in the solenoid coil. The ripple current can be transmitted by the wire to a distance, and then by a similar device to restore to vibration, or sound. Following this idea, Bell made the prototype of the phone.
When Bell tested the new device, he accidentally came to his lab: he accidentally spilled some sulfuric acid on his lap, and he could not help but cry for help. So, this call to save the human through the telephone transmission of the first sentence. Since then, Edison and other inventors on the phone for the transmission accuracy and other aspects of improvement, but the phone works still follow the idea of Bell. For modern city life, the phone is an indispensable tool.
2. microwave oven: chocolate bar accidentally melted after the invention
Microwave oven to bring a lot of convenience to cooking, but little known is that the microwave oven by the United States senior engineer Percy Spencer “unintentional willow shade” accidental invention out. Spencer is a genius in electronics and has worked for Raytheon, a defense contractor for US-made radar equipment. In 1946, when Spencer worked at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Radiation Laboratory, he tried to invent a more powerful microwave-emitting magnetron, a vacuum tube for radar equipment.
One day, when he stood in front of a test model, he found himself hissing in his pocket, and he immediately stopped experimenting to check the pocket and found that a chocolate bar in his pocket had melted. Spencer immediately realized that the microwave radiation of the magnetron could have roasted the chocolate, and he placed a pack of corn kernels on the test model, and the corn was soon baked into a popcorn, The Spencer realized that the technology could be used in cooking, the world’s first microwave oven was born. Now, the microwave oven has entered the kitchen of thousands of households, has become an urgent child and a single family of essential kitchen utensils!
3.X light: the screen accidentally see their palm skeleton stunned physicist
One day in 1895, the German physicist William Roentgen in the University of Würzburg, Germany, the laboratory to study the characteristics of the cathode ray tube, suddenly noticed a beam of light projected to the other end of the house, “barium cyanide “Fluorescent cardboard on the screen, and then he found the cardboard screen appeared on a skeleton with the palm of the hand, his initial surprise suddenly became shocked.
Roentgen soon realized that some mysterious radiant light had not only passed through the air and had passed through his flesh and blood, so that his palm bones were projected on the dim light of the cardboard screen. The particles of this light are clearly able to pass through solid objects, and Roenton then finds that he can use this radiant light to produce a clear image of the body. In this way, the world’s first X-ray was born. X is called X, because X is the name of unknown things. Not long before the scientific laboratories around the world began to copy the X-ray machine, 20 years later, X-ray began a lot for medical purposes. Because X-ray is a phenomenon of nature, so accurately, Roentgen is accidentally discovered X-ray, rather than invented the X-ray.
4. Cardiac pacemaker: a “careless mistake” caused by the great invention
We often make such mistakes, from the toolbox inadvertently took out the wrong tool. However, the United States of America Buffalo University assistant professor Wilson Gretb Bach in the last century 50’s a simple mistake, but let him accidentally invented the implantable pacemaker, to save the lives of countless heart disease The At that time, Grett Bach was testing a prototype of the machine that recorded the heartbeat, he should have a 1 million megohm resistor used in the recorder, but he finally took out from the box installed on the recorder was actually a 1 trillion As a result, the recorder circuit generated a signal for a continuous 1.8 millisecond, and then interrupted for 1 second, and then repeated a signal of 1.8 milliseconds, so the cycle, the rhythm as the body’s heartbeat.
Gretelbach immediately realized that the current was able to adjust the heartbeat and treat heart disease. In 1960, the world’s first successful implantable pacemaker was installed on a 77-year-old man Serious heart disease after he installed the device, and lucky to live more than 18 months. In 1985, Gretbach’s “accidental invention” was selected by the National Institute of Professional Engineers as one of the 10 greatest engineering inventions of the past century and a half.
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5. Sugar essence from “do not wash your hands before meals”
A lot of cheap sweet snacks, will use the saccharin to simulate the sweetness, although this sweet than the sweetness of 500 times the material, in fact, from the black and smelly coal tar extracted from.
The invention of saccharin, from a Russian “do not wash your hands before” experience. One day in 1879, the United States Johns Hopkins University Russian chemist Constantine Fale de Bieger is busy with a chemical experiment, but suddenly remembered his wife at home for dinner, they rush back. On this day, he found that the steak and salad he had eaten had a strange sweetness. After confirming that his wife had not put sugar, he suddenly realized that the sweetness was likely to come from a piece he had brought from the lab Pencil: pencil stained with laboratory reagents, and then through his hand holding the pen, stained with cutlery and food!
Think of this, Felicity Beagle hurriedly finished dinner, back to the laboratory to continue to study. He carefully examined all the reagents of the day, and finally found that sweetness comes from a chemical called o-sulfonyl acetamide sodium, which is today known as “saccharin.” Felicity Borg immediately announced his invention and patented in the United States.
6. SMS: telecom operators did not expect to start using it to make money
Today, cell phone text messages have become a necessary tool for people to exchange information with each other, but little is known that mobile phone text messages were originally invented by European telecom engineers in the test system to facilitate communication, and telecom operators did not realize at the outset To its great significance! In 1987, due to the more compact and portable digital phone is being invented, the European telecommunications industry hopes to work together to develop a new mobile phone technology standards, which can be applied throughout Europe, so that we can better strengthen the harmony of European countries Cooperation. European telecommunications engineers in the test system, in order to facilitate the exchange and joint management of mobile networks, for their own invented a short message through the mobile phone communication system.
Europe’s telecom operators at the beginning did not realize the importance of “mobile short message service”, that in the eyes of consumers the most important feature of the phone is to call it until the mobile phone users have found the “mobile short message service” function, And frantically fell in love with it, the European telecom operators are so awake, realize that this invention will become a never dry rolling financial resources – since then, almost every mobile phone users have sent Mobile phone text messages.
7. Super glue: “failed invention” is also a good invention
During the Second World War, Dr. Kerry Koufu, a chemist at the Eastman Kodak Labs in the United States, led a team of scientists to try to reconcile a transparent plastic for the manufacture of military aircraft guns, and the experiment failed quite , They are deployed to develop something sticky too strong, it no matter what things will be stuck stick, simply can not achieve their initial experimental purposes. Dr. Kouff thought that the invention was a painful failure, and that sense of failure was as if we were accidentally gluing the glue on his fingers, and Dr. Kufu soon took the glue Left behind.
In fact, Dr. Coffer invented an adhesive called “cyanoacrylate” until six years later, when he was responsible for a new design of the cockpit cover, he thought of cyanoacrylate Adhesive This “old friend”, which was initially useless, says that the material has an incredible stickiness without heating, and he and the laboratory researcher test the properties of the glue on different objects. Found that this is a kind of sticky frantic super glue.
8. Non-stick pan: double accidental invention
We are now able to use non-stick pan to omelette, you have to thank the American chemist Roy Prycroft and the French engineer Mark Grigguo’s wife Corleit, because of the 16 years Invented a non-stick material “Teflon”, and 16 years later, Colette and whimsical proposed “Teflon” painted on the frying pan, which invented so many housewives clapped applause “non-stick pot”!
First, in 1938, the United States, New Jersey Jackson laboratory chemist Planckt hope to use CFC gas to DuPont for the development of a new type of refrigerant, he will be filled with tetrafluoroethylene gas tank In dry ice, to prevent them from being exploded. But when Plankt later wanted to use the gas, he found that the gas in the tank was bizarre, and the gas tank was still as heavy as the gas, and out of curiosity, Opened the gas tank, the results found in the tank out of some white waxy small pieces. These mysterious chemical substances make him two monks touch the brain, Planckt immediately through experiments to study their characteristics, the experiment proved that this new material is a strange lubricant, and the melting point is quite high, it is not afraid of heat, Not afraid of water, not afraid of acid, non-stick material “Teflon” was so accidental birth. Teflon was originally used in the manufacture of military equipment, until 1954, the French engineer Gregory’s wife Kelai Te whim, that her husband used to coat the fishing line to prevent knotting non-stick material “Teflon” If you can paint on the frying pan, the effect must be very good! Her husband Griggua heard his wife’s advice to immediately start their brains, sleepless nights to develop how the “Teflon” and aluminum together, the world’s first “non-stick pan” which came into being. “Teflon” and non-stick pan, can be said to be the product of the accident!
9. Goodyear: “mistakenly hit”
Mention car tires, many people first appeared in the mind of the manufacturers, often not Michelin is Goodyear. This is a manufacturer’s name, it is from the inventor of vulcanized rubber, life unsuccessful American inventor Charles Goodyear.
With the invention to be able to pick up the Edison, Karl Bentz and Nobel and others, compared to the 19th century Europe and the United States, there are a number of abjection and even impoverished inventor, Goodyear is one of them. In 1826, Goodyear and his father built the first metallurgical stove in Philadelphia, but only four years later, the firm was bankrupt because of a capital strand break, and Goodyear was put into prison because of debt Was the second half of the debt recovery.
After being released from prison, Goodyear turned to the study of rubber. Although the rubber has long been made by the American Indians ball toys, and with Columbus adventure for Europe to know, but until the 19th century, 30 years, rubber is still not a practical material, because it is too sensitive to temperature, Slightly higher temperatures will become soft and stinky, in the low temperature conditions will become brittle and hardened.
Goodyear is determined to solve this problem. He used a variety of materials to test with natural rubber. In January 1839, his experiment finally had a major breakthrough – he accidentally put the rubber, lead oxide and sulfur together to heat, and get a similar leather-like material. This is the first vulcanized rubber.
However, the society at that time did not realize the value of vulcanized rubber, Goodyear’s survival status has not improved. He was repeatedly imprisoned for debt problems; even in the first World Expo in 1851 by virtue of vulcanized rubber to obtain a number of awards, he is still a regular guest class.
In 1860, Goodyear died in poverty and illness. More than 30 years later, Frank Xibelin brothers to “Goodyear” to name their own business, to commemorate the inventor indomitable struggle process. With the dawn of the car era, Goodyear’s invention of the year finally shows its value.
10. Xanthium and “nylon gluing”
In China, Velcro Velcro is usually called “nylon gluing”. This kind of two pieces of plastic products consisting of clothing bundle tool, with the equivalent of buttons, buttons, latches, zippers or tape function.
“Nylon gluing” inspired by the Swiss engineer George De Mistra walk the dog when the inconvenience encountered. Whenever he took a dog through a growth of Xanthium green, the dog who often stained with Xanthium fruit. After careful observation, Mistra found that the fruit of the Xanthium has a very small “hook”, and with the dog twisted together, and thus difficult to pick off from the dog body. He was the two nature of the structure of the imitation of the design, “nylon gluing” was born.